Ranitomeya summersi

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA ANURA DENDROBATIDAE

Scientific Name: Ranitomeya summersi
Species Authority: Brown, Twomey, Pepper, & Sanchez Rodriguez, 2008
Common Name/s:
English Summers’ Poison Frog
Taxonomic Notes: This species was formerly included within Ranitomeya fantastica (Brown et al. 2008).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-08-02
Assessor/s: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer/s: Pascual Cuadras, A. & Cox, N.A.
Contributor/s: Angulo, A., Roelke, C. & Brown , J.
Justification:
Listed as Endangered because of its estimated extent of occurrence of 500 km², its population being severely fragmented, a continuing decline in the area and quality of its habitat in northern Peru, and a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals due to illegal collection for the pet trade.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This frog is known from seven geographical localities in the central Huallaga Canyon and surrounding semiarid valleys, including both sides of the Rio Huallaga, into the southernmost edge of the Cordillera Escalera and to the northwestern edge of the Cordillera Azul, in the Region of San Martín, northern Peru (Brown et al. 2008, J. L. Brown pers. comm. July 2011). It can be found from 180–700 m asl (J. L. Brown and E. Twomey pers. comm. July 2011). Its extent of occurrence, taking into account both known and projected sites, is estimated to be 500 km²or less (but note that the depicted range refers to known sites), although it has a spotty distribution within this realm, most of which is comprised of unsuitable habitat (Brown et al. 2008, J. L. Brown and E. Twomey pers. comm. July 2011).

Countries:
Native:
Peru
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: In the last three decades the subpopulation in the locality of Chazuta, where smuggling operations have typically taken place, appears to have experienced a dramatic decline. Subpopulations in other areas that seem to be overlooked by illegal collectors appear to flourishing (Brown et al. 2008). The global population is considered to be severely fragmented given that its habitat is in fragmented patches, more than half of the individuals are in small and isolated patches, and the species' biology is not conducive to dispersal in between habitat patches (J. L. Brown pers. comm. July 2011).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It occurs in dry, primary and secondary rocky premontane forests (Brown et al. 2008), characterized by an open canopy and rocky substrates (J. L. Brown and E. Twomey pers. comm. July 2011). It is a diurnal, terrestrial species, and breeding takes place in the humid leaf litter, with clutch sizes ranging from 4–9 eggs, and tadpoles are later transported into tree holes and phytotelm (water-holding plants) axils with small water pools, where they complete metamorphosis (Brown et al. 2008). Captive breeding efforts suggest that when conditions are adequate females may lay multiple clutches a year (Brown et al. 2008). This frog does not appear to be tolerant to habitat disturbance associated to agricultural activities (J.L. Brown and E. Twomey pers. comm. July 2011).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In addition to the illegal trade, this frog is threatened by habitat loss given that much if its habitat is near human settlements, and the constant encroachment by small-holder farmers and agroindustry seeking to expand their farmland is causing rapid deforestation, comprising thus a major threat to this species (Brown et al. 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is not known to occur in any protected areas, although given its proximity to Cordillera Azul it could potentially occur there. More information is needed on this species' population status and level of trade, and legislation and enforcement of legislation is needed to address the issue of illegal trade. Given the degree of ongoing habitat loss occurring throughout its range, habitat protection is urgently needed. CITES does not recognize Ranitomeya benedicta and R. summersi as separate species, so they are treated as subpopulations of Dendrobates fantasticus in Appendix II of CITES.

Bibliography [top]

Brown, J.L., Twomey, E., Pepper, M. & Sanchez Rodriguez, M. 2008. Revision of the Ranitomeya fantastica species complex with description of two new species from Central Peru (Anura: Dendrobatidae). Zootaxa 1823: 1-24.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2011. Ranitomeya summersi. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 April 2014.
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