|Scientific Name:||Rattus exulans (Peale, 1848)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Ruedas, L., Heaney, L. & Molur, S.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is widespread throughout both mainland and insular Southeast Asia (including the islands of Taiwan, Sumatra, Java, Bali and Borneo) (Corbet and Hill 1992; Musser and Carleton 2005). It is likely introduced and widespread in the Philippines and several Indonesian islands (including Sulawesi, Buru, Lombok, Sumbara, Flores), the island of New Guinea (approximate range only given). It has also been widely introduced throughout the Pacific (Corbet and Hill 1992; Musser and Carleton 2005). It is now extinct from North Island, New Zealand (Flannery 1995). The map for this species depicts only an estimate of the species extensive range.|
Native:Bangladesh; Cambodia; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Introduced:American Samoa; Brunei Darussalam; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; Kiribati; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Nauru; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Samoa; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Timor-Leste; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna
Present - origin uncertain:Taiwan, Province of China
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is an abundant species.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is present in a wide variety of habitats, including disturbed or agricultural land. In the Philippines, it occurs in agricultural areas throughout the country at all elevations (Barbehenn et al. 1973; Rabor 1986). Often present in disturbed forest (e.g. Danielsen et al. 1994), usually rare in primary forest, but may be common in primary forest on islands such as Negros with few native rodents (Heaney et al. 1989). In South Asia, it is a nocturnal and probably commensal species. It occurs in tropical and subtropical dry deciduous forests, tropical and subtropical mangrove forests. Coastal hilly forest with human settlements in lowlands (Molur et al. 2005).|
|Generation Length (years):||1|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is presumably present in many protected areas.|
|Errata reason:||This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.|
Alcala, A.C. and Alviola, P. 1970. Notes on birds and mammals of Boracay, Caluya, Carabao, Semirara, and Sibay islands, Philippines. Silliman Journal 17: 444-454.
Barbehenn, K.R., Sumangil, J.P. and Libay, J.L. 1972-1973. Rodents of the Philippine croplands. Philippine Agriculture 56: 217-242.
Danielsen, F., Balete, D. S., Christensen, T. D., Heegaard, M., Jakobsen, O. F., Jensen, A., Lund, T. and Poulsen, M. K. 1994. Conservation of biological diversity in the Sierra Madre Mountains of Isabela and Southern Cagayan Province, the Philippines. Birdlife International, Department of the Environment and Natural Resources, Manila.
Flannery, T.F. 1995. The Mammals of New Guinea, 2nd edition. Reed Books, Sydney, Australia.
Francis, C.M. 2008. A Guide to the Mammals of Southeast Asia. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA and Oxford, UK.
Heaney, L.R., Heideman, P.D., Rickart, E.A., Utzurrum, R.B. and Klompen, J.S.H. 1989. Elevational zonation of mammals in the central Philippines. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5: 259-280.
Heaney, L.R., Walker, E.K., Tabaranza, B.R., Jr. and Ingle, N. 2002. Mammalian diversity in the Philippines: an assessment of the adequacy of current data. Sylvatrop, The Philippine Forest Research Journal 10: 6–27.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).
Molur, S., Srinivasulu, C., Srinivasulu, B., Walker, S., Nameer, P.O. and Ravikumar, L. 2005. Status of non-volant small mammals: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (C.A.M.P) workshop report. Zoo Outreach Organisation / CBSG-South Asia., Comibatore, India.
Musser, G.G. and Carleton, M.D. 2005. Superfamily Muroidea. In: D.E. Wilson and D.A. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: a geographic and taxonomic reference, pp. 894-1531. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.
Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.
Rabor, D.S. 1986. Guide to the Philippine flora and fauna. Natural Resources Management Centre. Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines.
Smith, A.T. and Xie, Y. 2008. A Guide to the Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Taylor, J.M., Calaby, J.H. and Van Deusen, H.M. 1982. A revision of the genus Rattus in the New Guinean region. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 173: 177-336.
|Citation:||Ruedas, L., Heaney, L. & Molur, S. 2016. Rattus exulans (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T19330A115146549.Downloaded on 14 August 2018.|
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