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Ranodon sibiricus 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Hynobiidae

Scientific Name: Ranodon sibiricus
Species Authority: Kessler, 1866
Common Name(s):
English Semirechensk Salamander

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Annotations:
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Sergius Kuzmin, Wang Xiuling, Vladimir Ishchenko, Boris Tuniyev
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Justification:
Listed as Endangered because its Area of Occupancy is less than 500km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat, in the number of subpopulations, and in the number of mature individuals.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is restricted to the southern and south-western spurs of the Junggarian Alatau [Altao] Ridge in southern Kazakhstan and Mount Tianshan in Wenquan County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It may also occur in the adjacent Yining, Huocheng and Tacheng Counties of China, and was historically also found in Hergos County. The range is severely fragmented due to the scarcity of suitable habitats (flat plateaus with a dense network of permanent streams). The altitudinal range is 2,100-3,200m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
China; Kazakhstan
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This is an extremely rare species. In China, the total population size is estimated at around 6,000 individuals.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It lives in the headwaters of small mountain streams, brooks and lakes in alpine and sub-alpine meadows, and forest-meadow and forest-meadow-steppe belts. Large streams and rivers are avoided. Reproduction extends from April to August. Clutches comprising two egg sacs of around 40-50 eggs each are attached to stones in brooks or streams. Larval development is slow, with larvae mainly feeding on stream invertebrates. The species first breeds at five years and has a lifespan of 15-20 years.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is particularly susceptible to over-exploitation (for medical, commercial and scientific purposes), habitat degradation (caused by over-grazing of forest, lowering of the water table, soil erosion, and desiccation of streams), and accidental mortality caused by the trampling effects of livestock during summer grazing. It is also threatened by local fishing practices.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed in the Red Data Books of the USSR and Kazakhstan and is listed as a Class I protected species by the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The range of this species is thought to be within the Hecheng Four-Claw Turtle Nature Reserve of China, although this requires confirmation. Existing conservation measures are considered to be insufficient, and there is a need for the immediate development and implementation of an effective system for conservation of the species at national (Kazakhstan and China) and international level. The most important measure recommended is the urgent creation of special strict nature reserves.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.1. Grassland - Tundra
suitability: Marginal  
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:Yes
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.4. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.3. Work & other activities
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.8. Abstraction of ground water (unknown use)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.1. Sewage
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.4. Garbage & solid waste
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.4. Storms & flooding
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

1995. Amphibian Populations in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Current Status and Declines. Pensoft, Moscow.

Bannikov, A.G., Darevsky, I.S., Ishchenko, V.G., Rustamov, A.K. and Szczerbak, N.N. 1977. Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosvechshenie, Moscow.

Fei, L., Ye, C.-Y., Huang, Y.-A. and Liu, M.-Y. 1999. Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Science and Technical Press, Zhengzhou.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Kuzmin, S.L. 1995. Die Amphibien Russlands und Angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp – Spektrum, Magdeburg - Heidelberg.

Kuzmin, S.L. 1996. Threatened amphibians in the former Soviet Union: the current situation and the main threats. Oryx: 24-30.

Kuzmin, S.L. 1999. The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.

Kuzmin, S.L., Kubykin, R.A., Thiesmeier, B. and Greven, H. 1998. The distribution of the Semirechensk Salamander (Ranodon sibiricus): a historical perspective. Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union: 1-20.

MacKinnon, J., Meng, S., Cheung, C., Carey, G., Zhu, X. and Melville, D. 1996. A Biodiversity Review of China. World Wide Fund for Nature International, Hong Kong.

Thorn, R. 1968. Les salamandres d’Europe, d’Asia, et d’Afrique du Nord. Éditions Paul Lechevalier, Paris.

Wang, X. and Bai, Y. 2000. Distribution, biology, and conservation of Ranodon sibiricus. Sichuan Journal of Zoology: 146-148.

Zhao, E.-M. 1998. China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals - Amphibia. Science Press, Beijing.


Citation: Sergius Kuzmin, Wang Xiuling, Vladimir Ishchenko, Boris Tuniyev. 2004. Ranodon sibiricus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T19304A8851144. . Downloaded on 05 May 2016.
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