|Scientific Name:||Ranodon sibiricus|
|Species Authority:||Kessler, 1866|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ab(iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Sergius Kuzmin, Wang Xiuling, Vladimir Ishchenko, Boris Tuniyev|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)|
Listed as Endangered because its Area of Occupancy is less than 500km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat, in the number of subpopulations, and in the number of mature individuals.
|Range Description:||This species is restricted to the southern and south-western spurs of the Junggarian Alatau [Altao] Ridge in southern Kazakhstan and Mount Tianshan in Wenquan County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It may also occur in the adjacent Yining, Huocheng and Tacheng Counties of China, and was historically also found in Hergos County. The range is severely fragmented due to the scarcity of suitable habitats (flat plateaus with a dense network of permanent streams). The altitudinal range is 2,100-3,200m asl.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This is an extremely rare species. In China, the total population size is estimated at around 6,000 individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It lives in the headwaters of small mountain streams, brooks and lakes in alpine and sub-alpine meadows, and forest-meadow and forest-meadow-steppe belts. Large streams and rivers are avoided. Reproduction extends from April to August. Clutches comprising two egg sacs of around 40-50 eggs each are attached to stones in brooks or streams. Larval development is slow, with larvae mainly feeding on stream invertebrates. The species first breeds at five years and has a lifespan of 15-20 years.|
|Major Threat(s):||It is particularly susceptible to over-exploitation (for medical, commercial and scientific purposes), habitat degradation (caused by over-grazing of forest, lowering of the water table, soil erosion, and desiccation of streams), and accidental mortality caused by the trampling effects of livestock during summer grazing. It is also threatened by local fishing practices.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed in the Red Data Books of the USSR and Kazakhstan and is listed as a Class I protected species by the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The range of this species is thought to be within the Hecheng Four-Claw Turtle Nature Reserve of China, although this requires confirmation. Existing conservation measures are considered to be insufficient, and there is a need for the immediate development and implementation of an effective system for conservation of the species at national (Kazakhstan and China) and international level. The most important measure recommended is the urgent creation of special strict nature reserves.|
1995. Amphibian Populations in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Current Status and Declines. Pensoft, Moscow.
Bannikov, A.G., Darevsky, I.S., Ishchenko, V.G., Rustamov, A.K. and Szczerbak, N.N. 1977. Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosvechshenie, Moscow.
Fei, L., Ye, C.-Y., Huang, Y.-A. and Liu, M.-Y. 1999. Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Science and Technical Press, Zhengzhou.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1995. Die Amphibien Russlands und Angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp – Spektrum, Magdeburg - Heidelberg.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1996. Threatened amphibians in the former Soviet Union: the current situation and the main threats. Oryx: 24-30.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1999. The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
Kuzmin, S.L., Kubykin, R.A., Thiesmeier, B. and Greven, H. 1998. The distribution of the Semirechensk Salamander (Ranodon sibiricus): a historical perspective. Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union: 1-20.
MacKinnon, J., Meng, S., Cheung, C., Carey, G., Zhu, X. and Melville, D. 1996. A Biodiversity Review of China. World Wide Fund for Nature International, Hong Kong.
Thorn, R. 1968. Les salamandres d’Europe, d’Asia, et d’Afrique du Nord. Éditions Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
Wang, X. and Bai, Y. 2000. Distribution, biology, and conservation of Ranodon sibiricus. Sichuan Journal of Zoology: 146-148.
Zhao, E.-M. 1998. China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals - Amphibia. Science Press, Beijing.
|Citation:||Sergius Kuzmin, Wang Xiuling, Vladimir Ishchenko, Boris Tuniyev 2004. Ranodon sibiricus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 March 2014.|
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