Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus arenatus
Species Authority: Hwass in Bruguière, 1792
Common Name(s):
English Sand-dusted Cone
Conus armatus E. A. Smith, 1891

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-10-26
Assessor(s): Kohn, A.
Reviewer(s): Peters, H. & Poppe, G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Harwell, H., Peters, H. & Coggan, A.
This species occurs throughout the Indo-Pacific from East Africa to French Polynesia and the Marshall islands, excluding Hawaii.  This species is wide ranging, appears to be relatively common in the wild and has no obvious threats.  It is common in coral reef sanctuaries in the Philippines.  It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs throughout the Indo-Pacific from East Africa to French Polynesia and the Marshall Islands, excluding Hawaii (Röckel et al. 1995). The EOO, AOO and number of locations exceed the thresholds for criteria B1 and B2.
Countries occurrence:
American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Bangladesh; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China (Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang); Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Cook Islands; Disputed Territory (Paracel Is., Spratly Is.); Fiji; French Polynesia (Tuamotu); Guam; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Japan (Kyushu, Shikoku); Kenya; Kiribati; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Macao; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is., US Line Is.); Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen (South Yemen)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Lower depth limit (metres): 30
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is relatively common throughout its range (A.J. Kohn and G. Poppe pers. comm. 2011).
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found intertidally to depths of 30 m. It is typically found in sand on reef and seagrass flats, or less commonly in rubble and mud.  In the western Indian Ocean, adults can grow up to a maximum length of 90 mm, although they will typically be smaller than this (A.J. Kohn pers. comm. 2011).  In the Philippines, maximum size recorded is 65 mm (G. Poppe pers. com. 2011).
Systems: Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: In common with all Conus spp, this species is traded by specimen shell dealers for the collector market. It may also occasionally appear in the local tourist market. There are no quantitative data available on the number of shells removed, however shells are sold for low prices and are widely available on the market (Rice 2007).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no known threats to this very wide ranging species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known conservation measures for this species at present.  It is common in coral reef sanctuaries in the Philippines (G. Poppe pers. comm. 2011).

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.5. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.9. Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.2. Marine Intertidal - Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.3. Marine Intertidal - Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches
suitability: Suitable  major importance:No

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education

♦  Handicrafts, jewellery, etc.
 International : ✓ 

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Rice, T. 2007. A Catalog of Dealers' Prices for Shells: Marine, Land and Freshwater. Sea and Shore Publications.

Röckel, D., Korn, W. & Kohn, A.J. 1995. Manual of the Living Conidae, Vol 1. Verlag Christa Hemmen.

Citation: Kohn, A. 2013. Conus arenatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T192870A2177248. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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