Conus anabathrum 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865
Common Name(s):
English Florida Cone
Conus floridanus Gabb, 1868
Conus floridensis Sowerby II, 1870
Taxonomic Notes: Two subspecies are recognised: C. anabathrum anabathrum Crosse, 1865 and C. anabathrum burryae Clench, 1942 (Tucker, 2010).

Petuch and Sargent (2011) consider C. burryae to be a separate full species. Conus anabathrum tranthami, previously considered a synonym, has also now been shown to be a valid sub-species from the coral reefs of the Florida Keys.

Note: This species has been assessed as C. anabathrum without the range of C. burryae which will have a separate later assessment as a valid species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-10-26
Assessor(s): Petuch, E.
Reviewer(s): Peters, H. & Coltro, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Passmore, J., Peters, H. & Livingstone, S.
This species has been recorded along the Western Florida coastline where it is only common near Marco Is and in Tampa Bay where populations could be easily extirpated by development and over-collecting. There is a continuing decline in habitat quality. This species is listed as Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii).

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is recorded from Apalachicola to Marco Island on the west coast of Florida (Petuch and Sargent 2011). Although this species has a wide range along west Florida, it is severely fragmented and really only common at a few spots mostly near Marco Is and in Tampa Bay where it is threatened by development and over-collecting (E. Petuch pers. comm. 2013).
Countries occurrence:
United States (Florida)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:1800
Number of Locations:6
Lower depth limit (metres):120
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are no recordings of population levels for C. anabathrum in the literature. When found, they are present in large aggregations of thousands of individuals (Petuch pers. comm. 2011).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is a shallow water species of marine snail, preferring sand bars or a muddy sand substrate (Allamand 2010, Tucker 2010). Their habitat can become exposed to the air during the lowest tides of the year where they may be found in pools of remaining water. C. anabathrum lives in coastal waters of Florida that may be under ecosystem stress from the effects of increasing coastal development for tourism, recreation and housing.  This species occurs at depths to 120 m.  Adults may grow to approx. 51 mm (Rosenberg 2009).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: In common with all Conus spp,  this species is traded for the specimen shell collector market. There are no quantitative data available on the number of shells removed.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is only common near Marco Is and in Tampa Bay where the populations could be easily extirpated (E. Petuch pers. comm. 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is restricted in its range and very scarce in the market and would benefit from further research into populations, habitat, level of off-take and  threats (including impact of fishing) before any action plan can be formulated. There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.5. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.2. Run-off
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.1. Nutrient loads
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

♦  Handicrafts, jewellery, etc.
 International : ✓ 

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Allamand, R. 2010. Recently Described Taxa: Live Conus anabathrum. The Cone Collector 14: 21-22.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Petuch E.J. & Sargent D.M. 2011. New species of Conidae and Conilithidae (Gastropoda) from the tropical Americas and Philippines. With notes on some poorly-known Floridian species. Visaya 3(3): 37-58.

Rosenberg, G. 2009. Malacolog 4.1.1: A Database of Western Atlantic Marine Mollusca. [WWW database (version 4.1.1)]. Available at:

Tucker J. K. 2010. Danker L. N. Vink's The Conidae of the Western Atlantic. The Cone Collector 14a: 25-26.

Citation: Petuch, E. 2013. Conus anabathrum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T192684A2140922. . Downloaded on 20 June 2018.
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