Conus armiger 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus armiger Crosse, 1858
Common Name(s):
English Mace Cone
Conus clarki Rehder & Abbott, 1951
Conus crenulatus Kierner, 1845
Conus frisbeyae Clench & Pulley, 1952
Taxonomic Notes: Conus pseudoaustini and Conus tristensis once considered as synonyms are valid species (Petuch and Sargent 2011).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-10-26
Assessor(s): Petuch, E.
Reviewer(s): Peters, H. & Coltro, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Peters, H., Livingstone, S. & Passmore, J.
Although the Deepwater Horizon oil spill may have had an impact on populations of this species, there is no evidence at this time to support this.  Owing to its deep habitat it is unlikely to be affected by fishing except as unintentional bycatch or by dredging to habitat. This species is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This deepwater species is found along the US and Mexican coastline of the Gulf of Mexico (Rosenberg 2009).
Countries occurrence:
Mexico (Campeche, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucat√°n); United States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Texas)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):300
Upper depth limit (metres):100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is no population information for this species.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in deep-water habitats (Tucker 2010) where it lives between 100 and 300 m. Adults of the species typically grow to 40 mm although will normally be less than this (Rosenberg 2009). It lives in sand and mud habitats.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: In common with all Conus spp this species is traded for the specimen shell collector market. It has limited availability but can demand very high prices (Rice 2007). However there are no quantitative data available on the number of shells removed and the high price is probably more a reflection of its deep water habitat and difficulty of gathering.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species has a fairly wide distribution in the Gulf of Mexico but this coincides with the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the U.S. states of Alabama, Florida and Louisiana and the population may have been negatively impacted. Any off-take will be caused by fishing by-catch.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.5. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.6. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Muddy
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.1. Oil spills
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Kohn, A. J. The Conus Biodiversity Website. Available at: (Accessed: 01/03/2011).

Rice, T. 2007. A Catalog of Dealers' Prices for Shells: Marine, Land and Freshwater. Sea and Shore Publications.

Rosenberg, G. 2009. Malacolog 4.1.1: A Database of Western Atlantic Marine Mollusca. [WWW database (version 4.1.1)]. Available at:

Tucker J. K. 2010. Danker L. N. Vink's The Conidae of the Western Atlantic. The Cone Collector 14a: 25-26.

Citation: Petuch, E. 2013. Conus armiger. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T192612A2127745. . Downloaded on 26 May 2018.
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