Conus aemulus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus aemulus Reeve, 1844
Conus lobitensis Kaicher, 1977

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-10-26
Assessor(s): Tenorio, M.J.
Reviewer(s): Monnier, E. & Seddon, M.
Contributor(s): Veldsman, S.G. & Peters, H.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Seddon, M., Bohm, M. & Peters, H.
This species is only found along a restricted area of coast, less than 40 km in length, where the species is found in shallow water to 5m depth. Pollution and development in Luanda may be a factor but is only considered to be a minor threat to the current populations of this species. Oil prospecting has been carried out along Angola's coast and at some point in the future oil exploration may provide a threat to this part of the coastline of Angola, but is there is no current development planned for these activities, hence the species has been assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to Angola and only known between Cacuaco to the north of Luanda and Mussulo Bay (Monteiro et al. 2004), a distance of approx 40 km. Samples of C. aemulus gathered by fishermen and sold for the collector market are the only source of information on the depth range for this species, indicated as 1 to 2 m in dealers lists of shells for sale (Poppe and Poppe 2011). The species is present in very shallow waters to 5 m depth (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).
Countries occurrence:
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – southeast
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:80
Number of Locations:1
Lower depth limit (metres):5
Upper depth limit (metres):1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are no records of population levels for this species, but recent records suggest it is very abundant (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species has been found on sand and rocks, from 1 to 2 m depth but possibly to 5 m (Poppe and Poppe 2011; M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

The shells of this species are traded for the specialist Conus shell market only. As a result, the level of off-take is low (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is endemic to Angola where it is restricted to 40 km of coastline. There is hardly any tourism in Angola at this moment and the species is only collected by a few specialist collectors; it is not collected by fishermen (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011). The only current threat is its proximity to the city of Luanda, so development and pollution from there may be of some concern, however this is currently regarded to be a minor threat (M. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011). Oil prospection has been going on along the Angolan coast, but there is no further development on this at the moment, so this is not considered a current threat; it may be more significant in the future if oil drilling commences (M. J. Tenorio and S. Veldsman pers. comm. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is restricted in its range and scarce in the market and would benefit from further research into abundance, level of off-take and threats before any action plan can be formulated. There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:No decline ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.1. Oil spills
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Monteiro, A., Tenorio, M.J. and Poppe, G.T. 2004. The Family Conidae, The West African and Mediterranean species of Conus. In: Poppe, G.T and Groh, K. (eds), A Conchological Iconography, pp. 270. ConchBooks, Hackenheim.

Poppe, G. T. and Poppe, P. 1996-2011. Conchology, Inc. Mactan Available at: (Accessed: March 2011).

Citation: Tenorio, M.J. 2012. Conus aemulus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T192546A2112986. . Downloaded on 23 May 2018.
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