Conus variegatus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus variegatus
Species Authority: Kiener, 1845
Conus obtusus Kiener, 1845

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-10-29
Assessor(s): Tenorio, M.J.
Reviewer(s): Monnier, E. & Seddon, M.
Contributor(s): Veldsman, S.G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Seddon, M. & Peters, H.

Although this species is relatively range-restricted, there are currently no threats affecting it, as it occurs along a sparsely populated stretch of coast.  Oil prospecting has been carried out along Angola's coast and eventual oil exploration may have an effect in the future, but there are no current developments of these activities. At present, the species is considered to be of Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to Angola where it is found from Limagens at its northern extent to Baía da Lucira in the south (Monteiro et al. 2004), a coastal distance of approx 100 km along a coastline with many bays and promontories that reduce the habitat area to 140 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – southeast
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 140
Number of Locations: 3
Lower depth limit (metres): 2
Upper depth limit (metres): 1
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There are no records of population levels for this species in the literature.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: Unknown Population severely fragmented: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found buried in sand under rocks (Filmer 2001, amended 2009), at depths of 1-3 m.  It is found in calm waters (no wave action). Adults of the species typically grow to 40 mm in length.
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The shells of this species are traded for the specialist Conus shell market only. As a result, the level of off-take is low (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Although most of the range of this species lies off largely uninhabited shores, it is a collectible shell. It is also a shallow-water species and therefore more easily gathered. However, there is no real collection happening in Angola at present apart from a few specialist collectors. The species is therefore considered to not currently be facing any threats. Oil prospection has been going on along the Angolan coast but there is no further development on this at the moment, so this is not considered a current threat; it may be more significant in the future if oil drilling commences (M. J. Tenorio and S. Veldsman pers. comm. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.1. Oil spills
♦ timing: Future ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Filmer, R.M. 2001. A Catalogue of Nomenclature and Taxonomy in the Living Conidae, 1758-1998. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Monteiro, A., Tenorio, M.J. and Poppe, G.T. 2004. The Family Conidae, The West African and Mediterranean species of Conus. In: Poppe, G.T and Groh, K. (eds), A Conchological Iconography, pp. 270. ConchBooks, Hackenheim.

Citation: Tenorio, M.J. 2012. Conus variegatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T192516A2107529. . Downloaded on 25 November 2015.
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