Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus amphiurgus
Species Authority: Dall, 1899
Common Name(s):
English Amphiurgus Cone
Conus flamingo Petuch, 1980
Conus juliae Clench, 1942
Taxonomic Notes: Conus flamingo is listed as a synonym of this species, however current research shows that it is a separate species restriced to Florida (Petuch and Sargent 2011).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-10-26
Assessor(s): Petuch, E.
Reviewer(s): Peters, H. & Coltro, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Passmore, J., Livingstone, S. & Peters, H.
This species is found throughout the Gulf of Mexico from Contoy Island Yucatan to Cape Hatteras North Carolina. There are no threats to this species and it is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is commonly found on both the Atlantic and Gulf coast of Florida and its range extends along the United States and Mexican coastline to the Yucatan Peninsula (Tucker 2010, Shelton 1997). Occurs throughout the Gulf of Mexico from Contoy Island Yucatan to Cape Hatteras North Carolina.
Countries occurrence:
Mexico (Campeche, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán); United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central
Lower depth limit (metres): 200
Upper depth limit (metres): 50
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is no population information available for C. amphiurgus.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: C. amphiurgus is found in shell hash and sandy mud bottoms, often associated with scallop beds (Felder et al. 2009, Petuch and Sargent 2011) at depths from 50 to 200 m.  Adults of this species typically grow to 54 mm.
Systems: Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: In common with all Conus spp this species is traded for the specimen shell collector market but it is not readily available and sells for moderate prices (Rice 2007). There are no quantitative data available on the number of shells removed. This species is not frequently in the market as it is generally collected as by-catch from trawling and dredging.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Florida, this species is brought to the waters' surface as a result of scallop dredging and is subsequently sold on the shell market (Tucker 2010). The elevated mortality from dredging is unquantified but owing to this species' wide distribution it is unlikely this will lead to any threat over the long term. There may be affects from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill and dispersant chemicals on the population viability of this species along the Alabama and Florida coastline.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.5. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale)
♦ timing: Unknown ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.1. Oil spills
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Diaz, J. M. 1995. Zoogeography of Marine Gastropod in the Southern Caribbean: A New Look at Provinciality. Caribbean Journal of Science 31(1-2): 104-121.

Felder, D.L.,Tunnell Jr. and J.W., Earle, S.A. 2009. Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters, and Biota: Biodiversity. TAMU Press, College Station, Texas.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Petuch E.J. & Sargent D.M. 2011. New species of Conidae and Conilithidae (Gastropoda) from the tropical Americas and Philippines. With notes on some poorly-known Floridian species. Visaya 3(3): 37-58.

Rice, T. 2007. A Catalog of Dealers' Prices for Shells: Marine, Land and Freshwater. Sea and Shore Publications.

Rosenberg, G. 2009. Malacolog 4.1.1: A Database of Western Atlantic Marine Mollusca. [WWW database (version 4.1.1)]. Available at:

Shelton, D. N. 1997. A Systematic List of Mollusks in the Northern Gulf of Mexico off the Coast of Alabama. Alabama Macalogical Research Center.

Tucker J. K. 2010. Danker L. N. Vink's The Conidae of the Western Atlantic. The Cone Collector 14a: 25-26.

Citation: Petuch, E. 2013. Conus amphiurgus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T192340A2076919. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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