|Scientific Name:||Conus anemone|
|Species Authority:||Lamarck, 1810|
Conus species 1
<i>Conus</i> <i>carmeli</i> Tenison-Woods, 1877
<i>Conus</i> <i>flindersi</i> Brazier, 1898
<i>Conus</i> <i>incinctus</i> Fenaux, 1942
<i>Conus</i> <i>maculatus</i> G.B. Sowerby II, 1858
<i>Conus</i> <i>maculosus</i> G.B. Sowerby II, 1833
<i>Conus</i> <i>nitidissimus</i> Fenaux, 1942
<i>Conus</i> <i>remo</i> Brazier, 1898
<i>Conus</i> <i>reseotinctus</i> D.G. Sowerby II, 1866
<i>Conus</i> <i>superstriatus</i> D.G. Sowerby II, 1858
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species has two subspecies:
C. anemone anemone Lamarck, 1810
C. anemone novaehollandiae A. Adams, 1855 (Appeltans et al. 2011)
C. anenome probably represents a species complex which is reflected in the large number of synonyms which have been applied to this taxon. Certainly further taxonomic resolution and research required on this complex and variable species.
C. novaehollandiae has been considered a synonym or subspecies of this species, however, its morphological distinct geographical range may mean a species differentiation, and for conservation purposes should be considered separate species.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Peters, H. & Wells, F.E.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Cubaynes, H., Peters, H. & Hines, A.|
This species is found from Shark Bay, Western Australia, south to South Australia, Victoria, and the north and east coast of Tasmania; as far south as Hobart and north to the Queensland border. It is also found on Lord Howe Island. This species is intertidal to 130 m. As a species in general there are no specific threats to it. However, isolated populations or forms may have specific concerns. The distribution overlaps several marine protected areas in Australia. There is a need for more resolution and research on taxonomy as this may greatly impact the need for conservation focus on specific populations. It is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is found from Shark Bay, Western Australia south to South Australia, Victoria, and the north and east coast of Tazmania, as far south as Hobart and north to the Queensland border. It is also found on Lord Howe Island. This species is intertidal to 130 m (H. Morrison pers. comm, 2011).|
Native:Australia (Lord Howe Is., Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The density of this species has been estimated at three sites around the Dampier Archipelago in the north-west of Australia at Watering Cove, Cleaverville and Gnoorea Point providing estimated densities up to 2.6 individuals/10 m2 (Kohn 2003). However, owing to its wide distribution this is unlikely to be representative of their species globally.
It is abundant in some locations.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is found between 0 and 130 m on reefs, rock platforms, sand bottoms, rock rubbles, under rocks, boulders or among seagrass. It feeds mostly on polychaetes. The eggs are attached under rocks, corals or other kinds of hard substrate. Once mature it can reach a size ranging from 30 to 93 mm (Röckel et al. 1995; Kohn 2003).
|Use and Trade:||
In common with all marine molluscs including Conus spp, the shells are traded for the collector market. There are no quantitative data available on the number of shells removed. The availability of shells of this species is adequate on the international mollusc shell market and the price demanded for them is low which does not indicate lack of abundance (Rice 2007, Poppe and Poppe 2011).
This species has attracted the interest of the biomedical industry as one of its molecules could improve the efficiency of biochemical reactions (Czerwiec et al. 1996). However, it does not seem to be an important species for the biomedical industry and is unlikely to be gathered extensively for that purpose.
|Major Threat(s):||As a species in general there are no specific threats to it. However, isolated populations or forms may have specific concerns.|
|Conservation Actions:||The distribution of this species overlaps several marine protected areas in Australia.|
Appeltans W, Bouchet P, Boxshall GA, Fauchald K, Gordon DP, Hoeksema BW, Poore GCB, van Soest RWM, Stöhr S, Walter TC, Costello MJ. (Eds). 2011. World Register of Marine Species. Available at: http://www.marinespecies.org. (Accessed: August 2011).
Czerwiec, E., De Backer, J.P., Vauquelin, G. and Vanderheyden, P.M.L. 1996. High-affinity binding of [3H]neuropeptide Y to a polypeptide from the venom of Conus anemone. European Journal of Pharmacology 315: 355-362.
Guido, T., Poppe, Poppe, P. 1996-2011. Conchology.be. Mactan Available at: http://www.conchology.be/. (Accessed: March 2011).
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Kohn, A.J. 2003. Biology of Conus on shores of the Dampier Archipelago, Northwestern Australia. In: Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I. and Jones, D.S. (eds), The Marine Flora and Fauna of Dampier, Western Australia, pp. 12. Western Australian Museum, Perth.
Poppe, G. T. and Poppe, P. 1996-2011. Conchology, Inc. Mactan Available at: http://www.conchology.be/. (Accessed: March 2011).
Rice, T. 2007. A Catalog of Dealers' Prices for Shells: Marine, Land and Freshwater. Sea and Shore Publications.
Röckel, D., Korn, W. and Kohn, A.J. 1995. Manual of the living Conidae. Verlag Christa Hemmen.
Röckel, D., Korn, W. & Kohn, A.J. 1995. Manual of the Living Conidae, Vol 1. Verlag Christa Hemmen.
|Citation:||Morrison, H. 2013. Conus anemone. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 September 2015.|
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