Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus naranjus
Species Authority: Trovão, 1975

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-10-28
Assessor(s): Tenorio, M.J.
Reviewer(s): Monnier, E., Seddon, M. & Bohm, M.
Contributor(s): Veldsman, S.G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Seddon, M. & Peters, H.
Although this species is found along a largely uninhabited coast, its range is restricted to 220 km.  However, there are currently no threats affecting this species. Oil prospecting has been carried out along Angola's coast and eventual oil exploration may have an effect on Angola's coast in the future, but there is no current development of these activities. The species has been assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to Angola where it is found along the coast towards the south of the country from Benguela south to Baía da Lucira (Monteiro et al. 2004), a rocky coastline with many bays of approx 220 km in length.

Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – southeast
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 180
Number of Locations: 3
Lower depth limit (metres): 6
Upper depth limit (metres): 1
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There are no records of population levels for this species in the literature. There are currently two known populations, one in the north (Benguela), and one in south (previously known range); the species is likely to be also found in betweeen these sites following further surveys (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: Unknown Population severely fragmented: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found on rocks and in sand at shallow depths down to approx 6 m (Poppe and Poppe 2011). Adults of the species typically grow to 25 mm in length.
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The shells of this species are traded for the specialist Conus shell market only. As a result, the level of off-take is low (M. J Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This shallow water species is endemic to Angola where it is restricted to a 220 km stretch of coast.  Most of the range of this species lies off largely uninhabited shores, so that there are no real current threats to this species. Oil prospection has been going on along the Angolan coast, but there is no further development on this at the moment, so this is not considered a current threat; it may be more significant in the future if oil drilling commences (M. J. Tenorio and S. Veldsman pers. comm. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.1. Oil spills
♦ timing: Future ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Monteiro, A., Tenorio, M.J. and Poppe, G.T. 2004. The Family Conidae, The West African and Mediterranean species of Conus. In: Poppe, G.T and Groh, K. (eds), A Conchological Iconography, pp. 270. ConchBooks, Hackenheim.

Poppe, G. T. and Poppe, P. 1996-2011. Conchology, Inc. Mactan Available at: (Accessed: March 2011).

Citation: Tenorio, M.J. 2012. Conus naranjus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T192293A2066933. . Downloaded on 08 October 2015.
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