|Scientific Name:||Aegilops sharonensis Eig|
Sitopsis sharonensis (Eig) Á.Löve
Triticum sharonense (Eig) ined.
|Taxonomic Source(s):||eMonocot. 2016. eMonocot. An online resource for monocot plants. Available at: http://e-monocot.org.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Based on the interpretation of the Bread Wheat gene pool of van Slageren (1994), Aegilops sharonensis Eig is a secondary wild relative of Bread Wheat, Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum, Durum Wheat, T. turgidum subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn., and a number of other cultivated wheats; including Emmer Wheat, T. turgidum subsp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell., Einkorn Wheat, T. monococcum L. subsp. monococcum, Spelt, T. aestivum subsp. spelta (L.) Thell., and Sanduri Wheat, T. timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. subsp. timopheevii.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A3c ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Semaan, M., Sapir, Y. & Fragman-Sapir, O.|
|Reviewer(s):||Sawalha, K.M.S. & Allen, D.J.|
|Contributor(s):||Kell, S.P., Rhodes, L., Maxted, N. & Bradley, I.|
The species is restricted to the coastal plains of Gaza (Palestine), Israel, and southern Lebanon. The population is declining as a result of habitat loss, and the level of decline in Israel is estimated at 50% over the last 30 years, with a future decline that will exceed 30% within the next ten years as a result of habitat conversion and degradation. The species is assessed as Vulnerable (VU (A3c)) on the basis of projected population decline and a continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO), habitat extent and quality. Subpopulation monitoring is recommended and in situ and ex situ gap analyses should be undertaken to ensure adequate conservation of genetic diversity, especially due to its known actual and potential uses for crop improvement.
|Range Description:||This species is restricted to the coastal plains of Gaza (Palestine), Israel, and southern Lebanon (Feinbrun-Dothan 1986 cited in van Slageren 1994), where it is found with a discontinuous distribution. Populations have been lost from south of Beirut at the Khalde dunes (the northernmost known locality).|
Native:Israel; Lebanon; Palestinian Territory, Occupied
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Kimber and Feldman (1987) cited in van Slageren (1994) reported this species to be common and sometimes found in dense stands. In Lebanon it is found as individuals (M. Semaan pers comm. 2016). However, the population is declining as a result of habitat loss across its range, and the level of decline in Israel is estimated at 50% over the last 30 years, with a future decline that will exceed 30% in the future (O. Fragman-Sapir pers. comm. 2016). Data for Lebanon are not available, however localities have been lost, and the same is expected for Gaza.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
It is found in dry, open grassland and consolidated sand dunes (Ankory and Zohary 1962 cited in van Slageren 1994), and prefers sand or sandy loam soils over sandstone or weathered marine diluvium bedrock (Eig 1928 cited in van Slageren 1994).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||1|
|Use and Trade:||The species is a secondary genetic relative of wheat and has known potential to confer salt tolerance traits (GRIN 2016), as well as having been utilized to confer yellow rust resistance (Millet et al. 2008).|
|Major Threat(s):||Impacted by habitat loss as a result of urbanisation and agricultural development.|
The plant is found in a nature reserve in Tyre, Lebanon (M. Semaan pers. comm. 2016) and probably occurs within protected areas within Israel. The genus Aegilops is listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) as part of the wheat gene pool.
GBIF (2014) reports 28 global accessions, none of which were collected in Lebanon. Two accessions (1,281 seeds) are reported to be held in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV Data Portal 2013), while USDA (2013) reports 90 accessions in the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), 68 of which are of wild origin and duplicated at a second site. BGCI (2013) records living collections in six botanical gardens worldwide.
Ankory, H. and Zohary, D. 1962. Natural hybridization between Aegilops longissima and Ae. sharonensis: a morphological and cytological study. Cytologia 27: 314–315.
BGCI. 2013. Botanic Gardens Conservation International: Plant Search. Available at: http://www.bgci.org/plant_search.php. (Accessed: 15 January 2013).
Eig, A. 1928. Aegilops sharonensis n. sp. Notitzbl. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem 10(95): 490–491.
Feinbrun-Dothan, N. 1986. Flora Palaestina Part 4. Text. Alismataceae to Orchidaceae. pp. 155, 170–171, 174–175. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
GBIF. 2014. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal. Available at: data.gbif.org.
GRIN. 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), National Genetic Resources Program, United States Department of Agriculture. Beltsville. Available at: http://www.ars-grin.gov/.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
Kimber, G. and Feldman, M. 1987. Wild Wheat. An Introduction. Special Report 353. University of Missouri. ii + 142 pp.
Millet, E., Manisterski, J. and Ben-Yehuda, P. 2008. Exploitation of wild cereal for wheat improvement in the Institute for Cereal Crop Improvement. In: Maxted, N., Ford-Lloyd, B.V., Kell, S.P., Iriondo, J., Dulloo, E. and Turok, J. (eds), Crop Wild Relative Conservation and Use, pp. 556–565. Wallingford.
SGSV Data Portal. 2013. Svalbard Global Seed Vault. Available at: http://www.nordgen.org/sgsv. (Accessed: 30 September 2013).
USDA. 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Beltsville, Maryland Available at: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?2415.
van Slageren, M.W. 1994. Wild wheats: a monograph of Aegilops L. and Amblyopyrum (Jaub. & Spach) Eig (Poaceae). Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands.
|Citation:||Semaan, M., Sapir, Y. & Fragman-Sapir, O. 2017. Aegilops sharonensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T19208950A20694921.Downloaded on 18 February 2018.|
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