Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Labridae

Scientific Name: Scarus ferrugineus
Species Authority: Forsskål, 1775
Common Name(s):
English Rusty Parrotfish
French Perroquet Ronille
Spanish Loro Orín
Pseudoscarus augustinus Kossmann & Räuber, 1877
Scarus aeruginosus Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus caerulescens Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus coerulescens Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus marshalli Schultz, 1958
Taxonomic Notes: The sister species is S. persicus (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2010). Initial phases between the two species are very difficult to tell apart.

Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2009-09-17
Assessor(s): Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.
Reviewer(s): McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.
This species is abundant over most of iits recorded range. It is not targeted in any particular fishery and it occurs in marine reserves in parts of its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2010 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden to Somalia and Socotra, Oman and Arabian Gulf, but it is not recorded from the northern Arabian Gulf (Randall and Bruce 1983).
Countries occurrence:
Bahrain; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Israel; Jordan; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Sudan; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – western
Lower depth limit (metres): 60
Upper depth limit (metres): 1
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is abundant over most of its range. It is abundant in the Red Sea with estimates of 76 individuals per hectare and 30.6 individuals per 1,000 m2 in northern Oman. It is also abundant along parts of the southern Arabian Gulf coast (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits coral reefs of the Red Sea and rocky shores of Oman and the Arabian Gulf in depths from 1-60 m
(Lieske and Myers 1994, Bruce and Randall 1984). The maximum age was recorded at 15 years (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is a component of artisanal fisheries.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known for this species.

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.1. Outer Reef Channel
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.2. Back Slope
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.3. Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope)
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.4. Lagoon
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Bruce, R.W. and Randall, J.E. 1984. Scaridae. In: W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds), FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51., pp. pag. Var.. Prepared and printed with the support of the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). FAO, Rome.

Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R., Craig, M.T., Lazuardi, M.E., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., et al.. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant components of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: (Accessed: 17 October 2012).

Lieske, E. and Myers, R. 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific and Caribbean including the Red Sea. Harper-Collins, London, U.K.

Randall, J.E. 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Randall, J.E. and Bruce, R.W. 1983. The parrotfishes of the subfamily Scarinae of the Western Indian Ocean with descriptions of three new species. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 47: 1-39.

Smith, L.L., Fessler, J.L., Alfaro, M.E., Streelman, J.T. and Westneat, M.W. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships and the evolution of regulatory gene sequences in the parrotfishes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 136-152.

Westneat, M. W. and Alfaro, M.E. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the reef fish family Labridae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 370–390.

Citation: Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Scarus ferrugineus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T190759A17778209. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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