|Scientific Name:||Scarus ferrugineus|
|Species Authority:||Forsskål, 1775|
Pseudoscarus augustinus Kossmann & Räuber, 1877
Scarus aeruginosus Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus caerulescens Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus marshalli Schultz, 1958
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Eschmeyer, W.N. and Fricke, R. (eds). 2015. Catalog of Fishes: genera, species, references. Updated 1 October 2015. Available at: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (Accessed: 1 October 2015).|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The sister species is S. persicus (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2010). Initial phases between the two species are very difficult to tell apart.
Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
This species is abundant over most of iits recorded range. It is not targeted in any particular fishery and it occurs in marine reserves in parts of its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is found in the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden to Somalia and Socotra, Oman and Arabian Gulf, but it is not recorded from the northern Arabian Gulf (Randall and Bruce 1983).|
Native:Bahrain; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Israel; Jordan; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Sudan; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Indian Ocean – western
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is abundant over most of its range. It is abundant in the Red Sea with estimates of 76 individuals per hectare and 30.6 individuals per 1,000 m2 in northern Oman. It is also abundant along parts of the southern Arabian Gulf coast (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species inhabits coral reefs of the Red Sea and rocky shores of Oman and the Arabian Gulf in depths from 1-60 m|
(Lieske and Myers 1994, Bruce and Randall 1984). The maximum age was recorded at 15 years (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
|Use and Trade:||This species is a component of artisanal fisheries.|
There are no major threats known for this species.
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.|
Bruce, R.W. and Randall, J.E. 1984. Scaridae. In: W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds), FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51., pp. pag. Var.. Prepared and printed with the support of the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). FAO, Rome.
Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B.A., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R., Craig, M.T., Lazuardi, M.E., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., Nañola Jr., C.L., Pardede, S., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Sanciangco, J.C., Stockwell, B., Harwell, H. and Carpenter, K.E. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant components of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039825.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
Lieske, E. and Myers, R. 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific and Caribbean including the Red Sea. Harper-Collins, London, U.K.
Randall, J.E. 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.
Randall, J.E. and Bruce, R.W. 1983. The parrotfishes of the subfamily Scarinae of the Western Indian Ocean with descriptions of three new species. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 47: 1-39.
Smith, L.L., Fessler, J.L., Alfaro, M.E., Streelman, J.T. and Westneat, M.W. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships and the evolution of regulatory gene sequences in the parrotfishes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 136-152.
Westneat, M. W. and Alfaro, M.E. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the reef fish family Labridae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 370–390.
|Citation:||Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Scarus ferrugineus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T190759A17778209.Downloaded on 27 July 2016.|
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