Goniurosaurus splendens 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Eublepharidae

Scientific Name: Goniurosaurus splendens (Nakamura & Uéno, 1959)
Common Name(s):
English Banded Ground Gecko
Eublepharis splendens Nakamura & Uéno, 1959
Taxonomic Notes: Honda et al. (2014) revised Japanese members of Goniurosaurus, previously considered either the full species G. kuroiwae, G. toyamiG. yamashinaeG. orientalis and G. splendens, or a single taxon G. kuroiwae with five subspecies. These authors' results supported the recognition of two full species, G. splendens and G. kuroiwae, and they proposed treating G. orientalisG. toyami and G. yamashinae as subspecies of G. kuroiwae.

Further molecular research into this species complex is ongoing, and has confirmed that there are at least five species-level clades in the Ryukyus, corresponding to subspecies of G. kuroiwae recognized by Honda et al. (2014) plus G. splendens (H. Ota pers. comm. 2016). As a revision of this group is due to be submitted for publication shortly, this account adopts a traditional five-species treatment of this complex, while recognizing that both G. kuroiwae and G. orientalis as presently recognized may be further subdivided in the near future.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-12-13
Assessor(s): Kidera, N. & Ota, H.
Reviewer(s): Bowles, P.

This species is restricted to a single island, Tokunoshima, and its extent of occurrence is approximately 250 km². Its population may be severely fragmented as a result of habitat destruction driven by development for settlements and agricultural land, and although these have not been quantified it is thought that the species occurs at fewer than five locations defined by these threats. Therefore, this species is listed as Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Goniurosaurus splendens is endemic to Tokunoshima Island, a member of the Amami Group in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan (Toda 2014).

Countries occurrence:
Japan (Nansei-shoto)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:247.56
Number of Locations:3
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


This species is uncommon. It is likely that the population has declined, as the area of suitable habitat area has undoubtedly declined (Toda 2014). While this species can survive in recovered secondary forest it is not found in converted or recently-disturbed habitats, and there is undoubtedly some degree of population fragmentation.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Goniurosaurus splendens inhabits mountains and hills with broad-leaved evergreen forests and recovered secondary forests. This species can be found in the adjacent farmlands and the surrounding villages. It is likely that it preys on small invertebrates such as earthworms and insect larvae. Females lay a clutch of no more than two eggs. It is known that the captive female lays three clutches in a reproductive season (Toda 2014).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is thought to be collected illegally, but there is no information on levels of harvesting or export.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

The main threat to Goniurosaurus splendens is habitat loss and fragmentation due to farmland development, road construction and deforestation, especially in lowland areas. It is likely that this species is captured for the international pet trade, representing an additional pressure on the population (Toda 2014).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Goniurosaurus splendens is designated as a natural monument in Kagoshima Prefecture. Capturing this species is forbidden (Toda 2014).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

3. Monitoring -> 3.3. Trade trends

Bibliography [top]

Honda, M., Kurita, T., Toda, M. and Ota, H. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships, genetic divergence, historical biogeography and conservation of an endangered gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata: Eublepharidae), from the central Ryukyus, Japan. Zoological Science 31(5): 309-320.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: (Accessed: 5 December 2017).

Toda, M. 2014. Banded ground gecko. In: Ministry of Environment (ed.), Red Data Book 2014.-Threatened Wildlife of Japan -: Reptilia /Amphibia, GYOSEI Corporation, 2014.

Citation: Kidera, N. & Ota, H. 2017. Goniurosaurus splendens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T18917767A18917771. . Downloaded on 19 September 2018.
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