The fish is widely distributed throughout its natural range, and it has been widely introduced. Populations have declined as a result of habitat loss and degradation (e.g., in Thailand), however it is considered Least Concern at present. The species is widely cultivated in Thailand and elsewhere, and this supplies the majority of the trade for consumption.
The species is widely distributed in southeast Asia, occurring in both the Mekong and Chao Phraya drainages, although its native distribution is not completely certain as it has been introduced widely. Paepke (2009) gives the native range as southern Viet Nam, Lao PDR, Thailand, and the Malay Peninsular, and it is also present in Myanmar. Introduced widely, e.g., the Philippines, southern China (Hong Kong), Sri Lanka and elsewhere.
Cambodia; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
Hong Kong; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Philippines; Sri Lanka
The species is commonly consumed throughout its range, fished by small scales fisheries mixed with other lacustrine fishes. It is popular in pond aquaculture (farmers in central and southern Thailand, central Myanmar, using introduced stocks from Thailand). It is exported as dry preserved fish from Myanmar and Thailand to Malaysia and Indonesia.
Pollution in wetlands, infrastructure development and wetland clearance impact the species. In central Thailand, the Samutprakarn district of Bangkok was a major ranching area of this fish, but urbanisation and industrial estates have replaced it.