Halichoeres radiatus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Labridae

Scientific Name: Halichoeres radiatus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Puddingwife Wrasse, Pudding wife, Alaya, Lawyer
Spanish Doncella arcoiris, Doncella, Doncella arco-iris, Doncella azul, Doncella azulada, Doncella pudín, Loro dientón orejón
French Donzelle arc en ciel
Halichoeres irideus torquatus Parr, 1930
Halichoeres irideus torquatus Parr, 1930
Iridio elegans Bean, 1906
Iridio elegans Bean, 1906
Julis crotaphus Cuvier, 1829
Julis crotaphus Cuvier, 1829
Julis cyanostigma Valenciennes, 1839
Julis cyanostigma Valenciennes, 1839
Julis opalina Valenciennes, 1839
Julis opalina Valenciennes, 1839
Julis patatus Valenciennes, 1839
Julis patatus Valenciennes, 1839
Labrus radiatus Linnaeus, 1758
Labrus radiatus Linnaeus, 1758
Taxonomic Notes: This species was thought to occur along the Brazilian coast, but recent genetic research revealed that coastal Brazilian populations belong to a different species (Rocha 2004).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-04-12
Assessor(s): Rocha, L. & Craig, M.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.
This species is widespread in the western Atlantic and is common. There are no major threats known to this species. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in the western Atlantic from North Carolina, USA and Bermuda to Trinidad and Tobago. In Brazil, it occurs only in the oceanic islands of Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas and St. Paul’s Rocks, and not along the continental coast.
Countries occurrence:
Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Brazil; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – southwest
Lower depth limit (metres): 55
Upper depth limit (metres): 1
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is no population information available for this species. It is considered to be common.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is reef associated and is found from 1-55 m. Adults are found on shallow patches of coral or rocky reefs or deeper seaward reefs (Lieske and Myers 1994), juveniles and subadults are found in shallower (one to five m) coral reefs (Gomon 1978). It feeds on molluscs, sea urchins, crustaceans, and brittle stars (Lieske and Myers 1994).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is occasionally collected in the Caribbean for the aquarium trade. Although it is not targeted, it is sometimes caught in multi-species fisheries.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability: Suitable  
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.1. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands
suitability: Marginal  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2008. FAO home page. Available at:

Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2008. Fishbase. World Wide Web electronic publication. Available at:, version 6/2008.

Gomon, M.F. 1978. Labridae. In: W. Fischer (ed.), FAO species identification sheets for Fisheries Purposes, Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31), pp. 615-628. FAO, Rome.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

Lieske, E. and Myers, R.F. 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific and Caribbean including the Red Sea. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, USA.

Rocha, L.A. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA and color pattern variation in three Western Atlantic Halichoeres (Labridae), with the revalidation of two species. Copeia 4: 770-782.

Citation: Rocha, L. & Craig, M. 2010. Halichoeres radiatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T187736A8616408. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
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