|Scientific Name:||Anampses caeruleopunctatus|
|Species Authority:||Rüppell, 1829|
Anampses chlorostigma Valenciennes, 1840
Anampses diadematus Rüppell, 1835
Anampses lineolatus Bennett, 1836
Anampses pulcher Regan, 1913
Anampses taeniatus Liénard, 1891
Anampses tinkhami Fowler, 1946
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Shea, S., Liu, M. & Sadovy, Y.|
|Reviewer(s):||Craig, M.T. & Carpenter, K.E.|
This species is widespread and is common in many parts of its range. There are no major threats to this species. It is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, and is found from East Africa and the Red Sea and to the Line, Marquesan and Easter Island including Papua New Guinea, Marshall Islands, Samoa Islands and Phoenix Islands, north to the south Japan (Shinohara et al. 2000, Westneat 2001), and south to Australia and Lord Howe Island (Myers 1991).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; Chile; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; India; Indonesia; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Pitcairn; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is common in many parts of its range.
In Lord Howe Island, density of A. caeruleopunctatus at depths of 14-20 m and three to six m was 7.3 individuals per 500 m2 and one individual per 500 m2, respectively. Biomass of A. caeruleopunctatus in Fiji Islands was found to be accounting for approximately 1.9 % of the total biomass of reef fishes and the occurrence frequency of A. caeruleopunctatus in the ten census sites was 52.9 % (Jennings and Polunin 1997).
In Fiji, a total of 12 individuals were counted in various UVC surveys with body sizes of 7-20 cm TL (M. Kulbicki pers. comm. 2008).
In New Caledonia, a total of 86 individuals were counted in various UVC surveys with body sizes of 6-27 cm TL (M. Kulbicki pers. comm. 2008).
In French-Polynesia, a total of seven individuals were counted in various UVC surveys with body sizes of 10-21 cm TL (M. Kulbicki pers. Comm, 2008).
In Tonga, a total of 36 individuals were counted in various UVC surveys with body sizes of 6-30 cm TL (M. Kulbicki pers. comm. 2008).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species occurs in shallow protected reefs, lagoons (Westneat 2000, Kuiter 2002) to depths of 30 m. It is also found on the surge zones of coral reefs, rocky coasts (Lieske and Myers 1994, Allen 2000, Thi and Quan 2006) and has been collected at depth of 20 m (Westneat 2001).
It is found to occur in groups (Westneat 2001, Kuiter 2002) or pairs (Lieske and Myers 1994). Juvenile and adults have been observed in rocky reef flat (Nanami and Nishihira 2002). Juveniles have been reported to feed primarily on small benthic crustaceans and polychaetes, while adults taking larger crustaceans, molluscs and polychaetes (Myers 1991, Sadovy and Cornish 2000, Westneat 2001). Juveniles swim with their head pointing toward the bottom and undulate their body (Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001, Kuiter 2002). It is diurnally active (Durville et al. 2003) and buries itself at night (Lieske and Myers 1994).
A single pair of incisiform forward-projecting teeth at front of each jaw, there is no teeth at corner of mouth or on roof of mouth. The lateral line of, A. caeruleopunctatus , continuous and deflected downward below base of ninth dorsal-fin ray to a horizontal section on caudal peduncle with 27 lateral line scales (Westneat 2001). Initial phase of A. caeruleopunctatus is reddish brown and dorsal, caudal and ventrally with a dark-edged light blue spot on each scale, dorsal fin. Terminal males are olive with a dark-edged blue streak on each scale of body and irregular, narrow, dark-edged, blue bands are present on the heads (Allen 2000, Westneat 2001).
In Hong Kong, females of A. caeruleopunctatus are shy and hide in crevices while males left the area (Sadovy and Cornish 2000).
In Micronesia, the standard lengths of females ranged from 14.7 to 23.8 cm, whilst males ranged from 16.3 to 26 cm (Myers 1991).
The maximum size of A. caeruleopunctatus is 42 cm TL (Sommer et al. 1996).
This species is sexually dimorphic, spawning in harem with the male patrolling territory (Colin and Bell 1991). When patrolling a territory, the male occasionally raised his caudal fin momentarily and circled females when the male passed. Spawning activities was observed after high tide involving species ascent rapidly about two to four m to spawn. Females were reported to lead the spawning and during courtship, the blue band between the eyes and mouth and the single green bar on the body of the male became brighter. Spawning activities were found from March to May. Egg shape is nearly spherical.
|Use and Trade:||
This species is captured for the marine aquarium trade in Reunion Island (Mulochau and Durville 2005), Queensland, Australia (Whitehead et al. 1986), Mozambique (Whittington et al. 2000) and the Red Sea (PERSGA 2004). Exported and marketed price for this species has not been documented. Further, according to Shao (2008), A. caeruleopunctatus is categorized as both food fish and marine ornamental fish species.
It was found in the Hong Kong local fish market (Situ and Sadovy 2004) and is occasionally trawled (Sommer et al. 1996), but Westneat (2001) noted that A. caeruleopunctatus is not commonly seen in the fish market, globally.
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species, although it is collected for the aquarium trade and caught locally as a food fish in some parts of its range.|
There are no species-specific conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas within its range.
Anampses caeruleopunctatus is present in the Bateman Bay, Ningaloo Reef Marine Park, Australia (Fitzpatrick and Penrose 2002), Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs Marine National Nature Reserve, Australia (Oxley et al. 2003), Booderee National Park, Australia (Australian Government 2006), Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa (Green et al. 2005) and the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (Kuiter 2006). Currently, creation of a fishing-free sanctuary zone in the Booderee National Park is under-reviewed (Australian Government 2006) and the proposal of establishing a 400,000 square mile Coral Sea Heritage Park, where fishing would be banned, in the Great Barrier Reef is under revising (Underwater Times 2008). Furthermore, in Micronesia, SCUBA fishing has been banned and Non-Governmental Organizations and Government are developing more MPAs (Kelty and Kuartei 2004). It is worth mentioning that marine parks or national parks do not necessary equal to no-fishing zones. For example, limited fishing is allowed for the licensed fishers in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Parks.
A. caeruleopunctatus is also found in the Watamu Marine National Park, Kenya where fishing has been prohibited for more than 20 years (McClanahan et al. 2002) and the Cape d’ Augilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong where recreational and commercial fishing are restricted (Cornish 2000).
While many marine protected areas (MPAs) have been introduced within the geographic distribution range of A. caeruleopunctatus, such as Kiribati possesses the world’s largest marine protected area that comprising about 410,500 km2 including the Phoenix islands archipelago and both Winslow and Carondelet reefs (PIPA 2008), In Philippines, there is a rapidly increase in the number of MPAs (Alino et al. 2000). Thus, it is believed that A. caeruleopunctatus might be present in one of those MPAs, but yet to be documented.
However, marine protected areas, especially in the south and southeast Asia, countries, are considered to be poorly managed due to the lack of expertise, resource, effective co-ordination and proper enforcement (Chou et al. 2002, Tun et al. 2004). For instance, destructive fishing practises, unconfirmed dynamite fishing and anchor damage have been found in the Bar Reef Marine Sanctuary, Sri Lanka (Ohman et al. 1997). Thus, majority of these MPAs might not be able to provide sufficient protection to the species that they are housing.
Adjeroud, M., Planes, S. and Delesalle, B. 2000. Coral and fish communities in a disturbed environment: Papeete Harbour, Tahiti. National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Aliño, P.M., Palomar, N.E., Arceo, H.O. and Uychiaoco, A.T. 2000. Challenges and opportunities for community participation for the management of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Philippines. Proceedings of the 9th International Coral Reef Symposium: 150. Bali, Indonesia.
Allen, G.R. 1998. Reef fishes of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. In: T.B. Werner and G.R. Allen (eds), A Rapid Biodiversity Assessment of the Coral Reefs of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea RAP Working Papers 11, pp. 39-49. Conservation International, Washington, D.C.
Allen, G.R. and Adrim, M. 2003. Review Article- Coral reef fishes of Indonesia. Zoological Studies 42(1): 1-72.
Allen, G.R. and Steene, R.C. 1988. Fishes of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia.
Australian Government Director of National Parks. 2006. Marine Biodiversity at Booderee National Park - Field surveys of the marine community. Australian Government Director of National Parks.
Chou, L.M., Tuan, V.S., Reefs, P, Yeemin, T., Cabanban, A., Suharsono and Kessna, I. 2002. Status of southeast Asia coral reefs. In: C.R. Wilkinson (ed.), Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2002, pp. 123-152. GCRMN Report, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia.
Colin, P.L. and Bell, L.J. 1991. Aspects of the spawning of labrid and scarid fishes (Pisces: Labroidei) at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands with notes on other families. Environmental Biology of Fishes 31(3): 229-260.
Dalzell, P., Lindsay, S.R. and Patiale, H. 1993. Fisheries resources survey of the Island of Niue - a report prepared in conjunction with the South Pacific Commission Inshore Fisheries Research Project and the FAO Regional Aquaculture Development Project for the Government of Niue, July 1990. Inshore Fisheries Research Project No. 3. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia.
Durville, P., Chabanet, P. and Quod, J. 2003. Visual census of the reef fishes in the natural reserve of the Glorieuses Islands (Western Indian Ocean). Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science 2(2): 95-104.
Fitzpatrick, B., Penrose, H., van Keulen, M., Birkin, M., Gillen, S. and Webb, J. 2002. A preliminary marine ecological survey of Bateman Bay, Ningaloo Reef/ a collaboration between Oceanwise Environmental Scientists and Murdoch University. Oceanwise Environmental Scientists, Perth, Western Australia.
Francis, M.P. 1993. Checklist of the coastal fishes of Lord Howe, Norfolk, and Kermadec Islands, Southwest Pacific Ocean. Pacific Science 47(2): 136-170.
Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2007. FishBase version (10/2007). Available at: http://www.fishbase.org.
Gell, F.R. and Whittington, M.W. 2002. Diversity of fishes in seagrass beds in the Quirimba Archipelago, northern Mozambique. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 115-121.
Green A., Miller, K. and Mundy, C. 2005. Long term monitoring of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Tutuila Island, American Samoa: results of surveys conducted in 2004, including a re-survey of the historic Aua Transect. Report to U.S. Department of Commerce & American Samoa Government.
Huang, Z. 2001. Marine species and their distribution in China's seas. Vertebrata, pp. 404- 463. Smithsonian Institution, Florida, USA.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Johannes, R.E. and Riepen, M. 1995. Environmental, economic and social implications of the live reef fish trade in Asia and the western Pacific. Report to The Nature Conservancy and the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Kapoor, D., Dayal, R. and Ponniah, A.G. 2002. Fish biodiversity of India. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow,India.
Kelty, R. and Kuaritei, J. 2004. Status of the coral reefs in Micronesia and American Samoa. In: C. Wilkinson (ed.), Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville Australia.
Kuiter, R.H. 1992. Tropical reef-fishes of the western Pacific Indonesia and adjacent waters. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta.
Kuiter, R.H. and Tonozuka, T. 2001. Pictorial guide to Indonesian reef fishes. Part 1. Eels- Snappers, Muraenidae - Lutjanidae. Zoonetics, Australia.
Letourneur, Y., Chabanet, P., Durville,P., Taquet, M., Teissier, E., Parmentier, M., Quéro, J.-C. and Pothin, K. 2004. An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean. Cybium 28(3): 199-216.
Lieske, E. and Myers, R.F. 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific and Caribbean including the Red Sea. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, USA.
Lovell, E., Sykes, H., Deiye, M., Wantiez, L., Garrigue, C., Virly, S., Samuelu, J., Solofa, A., Poulasi, T., Pakoa, K., Sabetian, A., Afzal, D., Hughes, A. and Sulu, R. 2004. Status of coral reefs in the South West Pacific: Fiji, Naura, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Island, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. In: C. Wilkinson (ed.), Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australian Government.
Masuda, H., Amaoka, K., Araga, C., Uyeno, T. and Yoshino, T. 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan.
McClanahan, T., Uku, J. and Machano, H. 2002. Effect of macroalgal reduction on coral-reef fish in the Watamu Marine National Park, Kenya. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 223-231.
Mulochau, T. and Durville, P. 2005. A review of the movements of fish held in captivity in the Reunion Island Aquarium over a five-year period. SPC Live Reef Fish Information Bulletin: 13-18.
Myers, R.F. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam.
Myers, R.F. 1999. Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam.
Nanami, A. and Nishihira, M. 2002. The structures and dynamics of fish communities in an Okinawan coral reef: effects of coral-based habitat structures at sites with rocky and sandy sea bottoms. Environmental Biology of Fishes 63: 353-372.
Nguyen, N.T. and Nguyen, V.Q. 2006. Biodiversity and living resources of the coral reef fishes in Vietnam marine waters. Science and Technology Publishing House, Hanoi.
Öhman, M.C., Rajasuriya, A. and Ólafsson, E. 1997. Reef fish assemblages in north-western Sri Lanka: distribution patterns and influences of fishing practises. Environmental Biology of Fishes 49(1): 45-61.
Oxley, W., Ayling, A., Cheal, A. and Osborne, K. 2004. Marine surveys undertaken in the Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs Marine National Nature Reserve, December 2003. Produced for Department of the Environment and Heritage. An Australian Government Initiative, Townsville, Australia.
Parenti, P. and Randall, J.E. 2000. An annotated checklist of the species of the labroid fish families Labridae and Scaridae. Ichthyological Bulletin J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 68: 97.
Randall, J.E. 1972. A revision of the labrid fish genus Anampses. Micronesica 8(1-2): 151-190.
Randall, J.E. 1986. Labridae. In: M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds), Smiths' sea fishes, pp. 683-706. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Randall, J.E. 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. and Steene, R.C. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Sadovy, Y. and Cornish, A.S. 2000. Reef fishes of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong.
Sale, P.F. 2006. Coral Reef Fishes- Dynamics and Diversity in a Complex Ecosystem. Academic Press.
Schiel, D., Kingsford, M.J. and Choat, J.H. 1986. Depth distribution and abundance of benthic organisms and fishes at the subtropical Kermadec Islands. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 20: 521-535.
Shao, K.T. 2008. The Fish Database of Taiwan. Available at: http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw.
Shinohara, G., Sato, Y. and Matsuura, K. 2000. Coastal fishes of Ishima Island, Tokushima, Japan. Memoirs of the National Science Museum Tokyo 33: 175-186.
Situ, Y.Y. and Sadovy, Y. 2004. A Preliminary Study on Local Species Diversity and Seasonal Composition in a Hong Kong Wet Market. Asian Fisheries Science 17: 235-248.
Sommer, C., Schneider, W. and Poutiers, J.-M. 1996. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Somalia. FAO, Rome.
The Phoenix Islands Protected Area. 2007. Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA). Available at: http://www.phoenixislands.org/species.html. (Accessed: 21.Oct).
Tissot, B. and Hallacher, L. 2003. Effects of aquarium collectors on coral reef fishes in Kona, Hawaii. Conservation Biology 17(6): 1759-1768.
Tun, K., Chou, L., Cabanban, A., Tuan, V., Nanola, C., Yeemin, T., Suharsono, Sour, K. and Lane, D. 2004. Status of coral reefs, coral reef monitoring and management in Southeast Asia. In: C. Wilkinson (ed.), Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia.
USCRTF Trade Subgroup of the International Working Group. 1999. International Trade in Coral and Coral Reef Species. International Working Group Draft Report. United States Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF).
Whitehead, M., Gilmore, J., Eager, E., McGinnity, P., Craik, W. and Macleod, P. 1986. Aquarium fishes and their collection in the Great Barrier Reef Region. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Whittington, M., Pereira, M.A.M., Gonçalves, M. and Costa, A. 2000. An Investigation of the Ornamental Fish Trade in Mozambique. Phase I: Information Macrodiagnostic and Project Appraisa. Coastal Management Unit, MICOA, Maputo.
Wilkinson, C. 2006. Status of coral reefs of the world: summary of threats and remedial action. In: I.M. Côte and D. Reynolds (eds), Coral Reef Conservation, pp. 1-37. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Winterbottom, R. and Anderson, R.C. 1997. A revised checklist of the epipelagic and shore fishes of the Chagos Archipelago, Central Indian Ocean. Ichthyol. Bull. Smith. Inst. 66: 1-28.
|Citation:||Shea, S., Liu, M. & Sadovy, Y. 2010. Anampses caeruleopunctatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 05 September 2015.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|