|Scientific Name:||Pteropus pumilus|
|Species Authority:||Miller, 1910|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Research is needed to determine the taxonomic status of the population on Miangas Island, and also on the possible population of this species on Tawi-Tawi; both of these islands are distant from the main range of the species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Heaney, L., Rosell-Ambal, G., Tabaranza, B., Cariño, A.B., Garcia, H., Pangunlatan, L.M., Ramala, S.P. & Alcala, E.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Stuart, S.N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Near Threatened because populations of P. pumilushave undergone declines in the past, although it remains reasonably widely distributed. Populations are predicted to continue to decline due to further habitat destruction and over-hunting at a rate considered to be close to that to qualify the species for inclusion in the Vulnerable category under criteria A2cd+3cd+4cd. This species would benefit from further taxonomic study.
|Range Description:||The little golden mantled flying fox occurs in the Philippines and Miangas (Palmas) Island in Indonesia (between the Talaud Islands and Mindanao). In the Philippines it is widespread excluding the Batanes/Babuyan, Luzon and Palawan faunal regions with records from Balut, Camiguin, Leyte, Maripipi, Masbate, Mindanao (Zamboanga del Sur), Mindoro, Negros, Panay, Sibuyan, Siquijor, and Tablas where it occurs at an elevation range from sea level to 1,110 m and rarely to 1,250 m (Heaney et al. 1998). There are unverified Philippine records from Cebu and Camotes (L. Paguntalan pers. comm. 2006) and Tawi-Tawi (S. Ramalya pers. comm. 2006).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This flying fox is most common on small islands and uncommon to rare on larger islands (Heaney 1984; Heaney et al. 1998; Heideman and Heaney 1989; Lepiten 1995; Rickart et al. 1993; Utzurrum 1992), its roosts are usually inconspicuous (L. Heaney pers. comm. 2007). It is considered abundant on Camigium and moderately common on Negros (L. Heaney pers. comm. 2006). A single individual was netted during 144 hrs of mist netting in Salagdoong during a 2001 study of three Department of Environment and Natural Resources managed reforestation sites on Siquijor Island (Godfrey et al. unpublished paper). During a study of 12 sites over a period spanning 1999 to 2003, 12 individuals were captured at six sites (Cariño 2004). Populations have declined in the past due to habitat degradation and destruction and it is predicted to continue to decline due to further habitat destruction and hunting pressure.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||P. pumilus is associated with primary and well-developed secondary lowland forest (Heaney et al. 1998) and is uncommon outside of forest although on Cebu a roosting site has been recorded from a scrubland area. This species breeds once annually (A. Cariño pers. comm. 2006).|
|Use and Trade:||It is heavily hunted on Mindoro, and is hunted on Negros and possibly elsewhere in the Philippines.|
|Major Threat(s):||P. pumilus is declining due to habitat destruction, and it may continue to do so, although it does remain fairly widespread. An ethnobiological study has shown the species to be under heavy hunting pressure on Mindoro (H. Garcia pers. comm. 2006) and it is subject to hunting on Negros (Cariño et al. 2006). It is anticipated that hunting will cause further population declines. It might also be subject to persecution.|
|Conservation Actions:||P. pumilis occurs in a number of protected areas. It is listed on Appendix II of CITES. Habitat conservation and control of over-harvesting are important conservation priorities.|
Cariño, A. B. 2004. Studies of fruit bats on Negros Island, Philippines. Siliman Journal 45: 137-159.
Carino, A. B., Cadelina, A. M. and Tiempo, F. A. 2006. An ethnobiological survey of wildlife hunters on Negros Island, Philippines. Center for Tropical Conservation Studies, Dumaguete City.
Heaney, L. R. 1984. Mammals from Camiguin Island, Philippines. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97: 119-125.
Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Dollar, M.L., Alcala, A.C., Dans, A.T.L., Gonzales, P.C., Ingle, N. R., Lepiten, M. V., Oliver, W. L. R., Ong, P. S., Rickart, E.A., Tabaranza Jr., B.R. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1998. A synopsis of the Mammalian Fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology 88: 1-61.
Heaney, L. R., Heideman, P. D., Rickart, E. A., Utzurrum, R. B. and Klompen, J. S. H. 1989. Elevational zonation of mammals in the central Philippines. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5: 259-280.
Heideman, P. D. and Heaney, L. R. 1989. Population biology and estimates of abundance of fruit bats (Pteropodidae) in Philippine submontane rainforest. Journal of Zoology (London) 218: 565-586.
Jakosalem, P. G. C., Paguntalan, L. M. J., Pedregosa, M., Gadiana, M. J. C., Bueno, R. G., Lepangue, R. and Catalbas, F. 2003. The Volant Mammals of Siquijor Island, Philippines. Unpublished report.
Lepiten, M. V. 1995. The Mammals of Siquijor Island, Central Philippines. Sylvatrop, The Technical Journal of Philippine Ecosystems and Natural Resources 5: 1-17.
Rickart, E. A., Heaney, L. R., Heidman, P. D. and Utzurrum, R. C. B. 1993. The distribution and ecology of mammals on Leyte, Biliran, and Maripipi islands, Philippines. Fieldiana: Zoology 72: 1-62.
Utzurrum, R. C. B. 1992. Conservation status of Philippine fruit bats (Pteropodidae). Silliman Journal 36: 27-45.
|Citation:||Heaney, L., Rosell-Ambal, G., Tabaranza, B., Cariño, A.B., Garcia, H., Pangunlatan, L.M., Ramala, S.P. & Alcala, E. 2008. Pteropus pumilus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 06 March 2015.|
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