Halichoeres bivittatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Labridae

Scientific Name: Halichoeres bivittatus (Bloch, 1791)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Slippery Dick
Spanish Doncella ravada, Doncella rayada, Doncella verde, Loro dientón verde
Choerojulis arangoi Poey, 1876
Choerojulis arangoi Poey, 1876
Choerojulis grandisquamis Gill, 1863
Choerojulis grandisquamis Gill, 1863
Julis humeralis Poey, 1860
Julis humeralis Poey, 1860
Labrus bivittatus Bloch, 1791
Labrus bivittatus Bloch, 1791
Labrus multicostatus Gronow, 1854
Labrus multicostatus Gronow, 1854
Labrus psittaculus Lacepède, 1801
Labrus psittaculus Lacepède, 1801
Platyglossus florealis Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
Platyglossus florealis Jordan & Gilbert, 1882

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-03-12
Assessor(s): Rocha, L., Francini, R. & Craig, M.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.
This species is widespread and very common throughout much of its range in the Caribbean and Florida, although it is uncommon in northeastern Brazil. There are no major threats known to this species, and population trends are unknown. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs from North Carolina, USA and Bermuda to Rio de Janeiro (Menezes et al. 2003) Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and throughout the Caribbean.
Countries occurrence:
Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Brazil; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – southwest
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):30
Upper depth limit (metres):1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Currently, population size/trends have not been assessed. This species is not present in FAO global production estimates.

Populations throughout the range seem to be well connected, except for the ones in North Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, which are genetically distinct and may represent a different species (Rocha et al. 2005).

This species is the most common wrasse in the Caribbean, but is considered to be relatively rare in Brazil.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is reef associated and found to at least 30 m depth. It is commonly found in rocky and reef areas in shallow waters. It is less common in seagrass beds.

It feeds on other fishes (Böhlke and Chaplin 1993) and gastropods (Cervigón 1993). It forms leks during breeding (Allsop and West 2003). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite (Allsop and West 2003). It is diandric. It is also a pelagic spawner (Nemtzov 1985). Sex reversal is completed in more than three to four weeks (Roede 1972, Sadovy and Shapiro 1987). Length at sex change = 30.2 cm TL (Allsop and West 2003).
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is collected for the aquarium trade, but only rarely. In Brazil, only 61 specimens were exported in 2007 (IBAMA 2007)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present within several marine protected areas across its range. Baseline research on population trends is needed, as little is known about this species population status.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.9. Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.1. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Allsop, D.J. and West, S.A. 2003. Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 16: 921-929.

Böhlke, J.E. and Chaplin, C.C.G. 1993. Fishes of the Bahamas and adjacent tropical waters. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Cervigón, F. 1993. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela.

IBAMA. 2007. Peixes Ornamentais Marinhos Estatica de Exportacao por especie para 2007. Available at:

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

Menezes, N.A., Buckup, P.A., de Figueiredo, J.L. and Moura, R.L. 2003. Cataologo das especies de peixes marinhos do Brasil. Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Nemtzov, S.C. 1985. Social control of sex change in the Red Sea razorfish Xyrichthys pentadactylus (Teleostei, Labridae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 14(2/3): 199-211.

Rocha, L.A., Robertson, D R., Roman, J. and Bowen, B.W. 2005. Ecological speciation in tropical reef fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 272(1563): 573-579.

Roede, M.J. 1972. Color as related to size, sex, and behavior in seven Caribbean labrid fish species (genera Thalassoma, Halichoeres, Hemipteronotus). Studies on the fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands 42: 1-264.

Sadovy, Y. and Shapiro, D.Y. 1987. Criteria for the diagnosis of hermaphroditism in fishes. Copeia: 136-156.

Citation: Rocha, L., Francini, R. & Craig, M. 2010. Halichoeres bivittatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T187482A8547710. . Downloaded on 25 May 2018.
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