Pteropus livingstonii 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Pteropodidae

Scientific Name: Pteropus livingstonii
Species Authority: Gray, 1866
Common Name(s):
English Comoro Black Flying Fox, Livingstone’s Fruit Bat, Livingstone's Flying Fox
French Roussette de Livingstone
Spanish Zorro Volador De Livingston
Pteropus livingstonei Andersen 1912

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2c; B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Mickleburgh, S., Hutson, A.M. & Bergmans, W.
Reviewer(s): Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Listed as Endangered because of a serious population decline, estimated to be more than 50% over the next ten years, inferred from ongoing habitat loss and degradation, and because its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km², all individuals are in fewer than five locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Union of the Comoros, where it is only found on the islands of Anjouan and Moheli. On Anjouan, the species avoids lower parts of the island below 300 m asl, but it has been recorded feeding on Moheli at 40 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In 2002 there were estimated to be 1,200 bats in 20 roosts, many of which have been recently located as a result of the implementation of a national environmental education programme (Trewhella et al. 2005). Prior to the national environmental education programme there were estimated to be fewer than 200 bats.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species roosts on steep-sided valleys with south-east facing slopes, near ridge tops and in areas generally associated with natural vegetation (Granek 2002). Populations of this bat are largely confined to primary tropical moist forest (Mickleburgh et al. 1992). Animals feed on pollen, fruit and leaves, particularly of native Ficus species but also includes kapok (Ceiba pentandra) (Trewhella et al. 2001; Sewall et al. 2003).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened by the continuing degradation of its forest habitat by conversion of land to agricultural use, especially the use of lowland areas for export crops (such as cloves). In degraded forest the species is outcompeted by the bat Pteropus seychellensis (Mickleburgh et al. 1992). Tree felling has additionally destroyed a number of roosts (Trewhella et al. 2005). There is also increased disturbance because of human population growth, however, the species is not hunted for food (Trewhella et al. 2005). The small remaining population is additionally potentially threatened in its restricted range by the effects of tropical cyclones.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: A species action plan developed by the NGO Action Comoros is being implemented for this species (Sewall et al. 2003). A national environmental education programme has been implemented to raise awareness of this species (Trewhella et al. 2005). National legislation to protect this species is being developed (Trewhella et al. 2005) and work has begun to establish a forest reserve for this bat on Moheli and on evaluating a site for a reserve on Anjouan (Trewhella et al. 2005). There is an active captive-breeding programme underway for this species initiated by the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.3. Work & other activities
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.2. Problematic native species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.4. Storms & flooding
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

Bibliography [top]

Granek, E. 2002. Conservation of Pteropus livingstonii based on roost site habitat characteristics on Anjouan and Moheli, Comoros Islands. Biological Conservation 108: 93-100.

Mickleburgh, S.P., Hutson, A.M. and Racey, P.A. 1992. Old World Fruit-Bats - An Action Plan for their Conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Sewall, B. J., Granek, E. F., Carroll, J. B., Feistner, A. T. C., Masefield, W., Moutui, M. F. E., Reason, P. F., Rodriguez-Clark, K. M., Said, I., Trewhella, W. J., Vely, M. and Wells, S. 2003. Plan d'Action pour la Conservation de la Rousette de Livingstone Pteropus livingstonii (Project Document). Projet Conservation de la Biodiversite et Developpement Durable aux Comores, Moroni, Union des Comores.

Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Trewhella, W. J., Rodriguez-Clark, K. M., Corp, N., Entwistle, A., Garrett, S. R. T., Granek, E., Lengel, K. L., Raboude, M. J., Reason, P. F. and Sewall, B. J. 2005. Environmental education as a component of multidisciplinary conservation programmes: lessons from conservation initiatives for Critically Endangered fruit bats in the Western Indian Ocean. Conservation Biology 19(1): 75-85.

Trewhella, W. J., Rodriguez-Clark, K. M., Davies, J. G., Reason, P. F. and Wray, S. 2001. Sympatric fruit bat species (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in the Comoro Islands (Western Indian Ocean): diurnality, feeding interactions and their conservation implications. Acta Chiropterlogica 3: 135-147.

Citation: Mickleburgh, S., Hutson, A.M. & Bergmans, W. 2008. Pteropus livingstonii. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T18732A8513037. . Downloaded on 24 August 2016.
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