|Scientific Name:||Pteropus hypomelanus|
|Species Authority:||Temminck, 1853|
Pteropus annectens K. Andersen, 1908
Pteropus cagayanus Mearns, 1905
Pteropus canus K. Andersen, 1908
Pteropus condorensis Peters, 1869
Pteropus enganus Miller, 1906
Pteropus fretensis Kloss, 1916
Pteropus geminorum Miller, 1903
Pteropus lepidus Miller, 1900
Pteropus luteus K. Andersen, 1908
Pteropus macassaricus Heude, 1897
Pteropus maris Allen, 1936
Pteropus robinsoni K. Andersen, 1909
Pteropus satyrus K. Andersen, 1908
Pteropus simalurus Thomas, 1923
Pteropus tomesi Peters, 1869
Pteropus tricolor Gray, 1871
Pteropus vulcanius Thomas, 1915
|Taxonomic Notes:||This taxon belongs to the subniger species group. Earlier the taxon satyrus Andersen, 1908 was listed under Pteropus melanotus Blyth, 1863 (Corbet and Hill 1992; Koopman 1993). Jones and Kunz (2000) validated maris Allen, 1936 as its subspecies (Srinivasulu et al. in press). The Melanesian population of this species (subspecies P. h. luteus) is disjunct from populations in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines (several subspecies).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Francis, C., Rosell-Ambal, G., Bonaccorso, F. & A., Heaney, L., Molur, S. & Srinivasulu, C.|
|Reviewer/s:||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Suffering from hunting pressure and habitat loss in the Philippines, where it may be Near Threatened. On a global scale, it is abundant, and should be considered Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is widespread, ranging from the Maldives and Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) in the west, to Melanesia in the east. In South Asia, this species is restricted to only four locations in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India and Addu Atoll in Maldives (Molur et al. 2002). The species is found on many offshore islands and in coastal lowlands in the Southeast Asian region, including the Philippines and Indonesia (Sulawesi). In the Philippines it is found throughout the country with the possible except of the Palawan faunal region; records are from: Bohol, Cagayan Sulu, Camotes (Paguntulan pers. comm. 2006) Camiguin, Cebu (Paguntulan pers. comm. 2006) Cuyo, Dinagat, Guimaras, Leyte, Luzon (Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, and Nueva Ecija) Mactan, Marinduque, Maripipi, Masbat, Mindanao (Gunther 1897) Negros, Panay (including Boracay and Batbatan), Polillo, Romblon (Timm and Birney 1980), Samar, Siargao, Sibuyan, Siquijor (Heaney et al. 1998) Tablas (Paguntulan pers. comm. 2006). There are few records from mainland Papua New Guinea; the species is also found in the D'Entrecastreaux Archipelago of Papua New Guinea, on Manus in the Admiralty Islands. Records from New Britain and Tabar are questionable (probably P. admiraltatum). It is confirmed only from Mbanika and the Russel Islands in the Solomons. In South Asia, this species has been recorded from sea level to an elevation of 100 m asl. It has been recorded from sea level up to 900 m asl in the Philippines; it is primarily found in low elevation areas in Melanesia (under 500 m asl).|
Native:India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Maldives; Myanmar; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Thailand; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common to abundant throughout its range, and can form colonies of up to 5,000 individuals. The abundance, population size and trends for this species are not known in South Asia (Molur et al. 2002).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||In South Asia, this species roosts in large colonies of several individuals and is found in forests, orchards, coconut palm groves (Molur et al. 2002). It feeds both on wild and cultivated fruits (Bates and Harrison 1997). In most parts of its range in the Philippines, this species roosts on small offshore islands and near coastlines, but forages on the mainland where it is common in agricultural areas and absent from primary forest (Heideman and Heaney 1992, Rickart et al. 1993, Utzurrum 1992). In Melanesia, it is generally an insular species found on small offshore islands. Animals may commute infrequently to larger islands for foraging. It is known to roost in trees, often in large groups at the coastline. It can be found foraging for food in both primary and secondary tropical forest habitats, rural gardens and plantations. The females give birth to a single young which take about one year to reach maturity (Flannery 1995; Bonaccorso 1998).|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species as a whole. In South Asia, this species is threatened by deforestation, generally resulting from logging operations and the conversion of land to agricultural and other uses. It is also threatened due to tourism related activities (Molur et al. 2002). The species is under heavy hunting pressure in the Philippines, although it may be able to withstand this, at least in the short term, as populations have remained stable. Animals are sold locally for 30-50 Philippine Pesos each Cariño pers. comm. 2006). In Melanesia, the species is locally vulnerable to hunting. Island populations of this species, especially on the coastal islands of northern New Guinea, are vulnerable to overexploitation by hunting for food (Bonaccorso 1998). Threats to this species are unknown in Indonesia.|
|Conservation Actions:||This is accorded vermin classification under Schedule V of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act. This species has been recorded from Barren Island Wildlife Sanctuary, Andaman and Nicobar Island in India. Taxonomic studies, ecology, population monitoring and habitat management are recommended. Awareness needs to be created to mitigate threats to this species (Molur et al. 2002). This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES. This species apparently does well in captive-breeding programmes (Bonaccorso 1998).|
Bates, P. J. J. and Harrison, D. L. 1997. Bats of the Indian Subcontinent. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, England, UK.
Bergmans, W. and Rozendaal, F. G. 1988. Notes on a collection of fruit bats from Sulawesi and some off-lying islands (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). Zoologische Verhandelingen 248: 1-14.
Bonaccorso, F. 1998. Bats of Papua New Guinea. Conservation International, Washington, DC, USA.
Corbet, G. B. and Hill, J. E. 1992. Mammals of the Indo-Malayan Region: A Systematic Review. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Flannery, T. F. 1995. Mammals of the South-West Pacific and Moluccan Islands. Australian Museum/Reed Books, Chatswood.
Flannery, T. F. 1995. The Mammals of New Guinea, 2nd edition. Reed Books, Sydney, Australia.
Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Dollar, M.L., Alcala, A.C., Dans, A.T.L., Gonzales, P.C., Ingle, N. R., Lepiten, M. V., Oliver, W. L. R., Ong, P. S., Rickart, E.A., Tabaranza Jr., B.R. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1998. A synopsis of the Mammalian Fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology 88: 1-61.
Heideman, P. D. and Heaney, L. R. 1989. Population biology and estimates of abundance of fruit bats (Pteropodidae) in Philippine submontane rainforest. Journal of Zoology (London) 218: 565-586.
Jones, D. P. and Kunz, T. H. 2000. Pteropus hypomelanus. Mammalian Species 639: 1-6.
Koopman, K. F. 1993. Order Chiroptera. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, pp. 137–241. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C., USA.
Mickleburgh, S. P., Hutson, A. M. and Racey, P. A. 1992. Old World Fruit-Bats - An Action Plan for their Conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Molur, S., Marimuthu, G., Srinivasulu, C., Mistry, S. Hutson, A. M., Bates, P. J. J., Walker, S., Padmapriya, K. and Binupriya, A. R. 2002. Status of South Asian Chiroptera: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (C.A.M.P.) Workshop Report. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.
Rickart, E. A., Heaney, L. R., Heidman, P. D. and Utzurrum, R. C. B. 1993. The distribution and ecology of mammals on Leyte, Biliran, and Maripipi islands, Philippines. Fieldiana: Zoology 72: 1-62.
Srinivasulu, C., Srinivasulu, B. and Sinha, Y. P. In press. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of South Asia: Biogeography, diversity, taxonomy and distribution. Journal of Threatened Taxa.
Timm, R. M. and Birney, E. C. 1980. Mammals collected by the Menage Scientific Expedition to the Philippine Islands and Borneo, 1890-1893. Journal of Mammalogy 61: 566-571.
Utzurrum, R. C. B. 1992. Conservation status of Philippine fruit bats (Pteropodidae). Silliman Journal 36: 27-45.
|Citation:||Francis, C., Rosell-Ambal, G., Bonaccorso, F. & A., Heaney, L., Molur, S. & Srinivasulu, C. 2008. Pteropus hypomelanus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 April 2014.|
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