|Scientific Name:||Pteropus conspicillatus|
|Species Authority:||Gould, 1850|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Helgen, K., Salas, L. & Bonaccorso, F.|
|Reviewer/s:||Lamoreux, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team), Racey, P.A., Medellín, R. & Hutson, A.M. (Chiroptera Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, large population (including very large colonies in many places, including cities), and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species has been recorded from the Moluccan Islands of Indonesia (including the islands of Halmahera, Bacan, Obi, Misool, and Gebe), it is present on Salawati Island (Indonesia), Biak and Yapen islands (Indonesia), coastal areas of the island of New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea), the D’Entrecasteaux Islands (Papua New Guinea), the Louisade Archipelago (Papua New Guinea), and is found in Australia where it ranges patchily from Cape York to coastal central Queensland between MacKay and Rockhampton (Flannery 1995a,b; Bonaccorso 1998), with the main population in the Wet Tropics (B. Thomson pers. comm.). It is found from sea level to 200 m asl.|
Native:Australia; Indonesia; Papua New Guinea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is generally a common species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in lowland swamp, mangrove, and tropical moist forest habitats (Duncan et al. 1999). It has been recorded in both primary and disturbed areas. Females annually give birth to a single young.|
|Major Threat(s):||It is threatened on New Guinea by logging of suitable coastal habitats, and the species is eaten (F. Bonaccorso pers. comm.). In Australia it is threatened by habitat loss through conversion of coastal and upland forest to crops (e.g., sugar), pastureland, and urban development (Duncan et al. 1999). Loss of moist forest habitat overall in its range has been up to 80% (B. Thomson pers. comm.). It is known to raid orchards and large numbers are electrocuted and shot in orchards and at colonies (Duncan et al. 1999). It is also threatened by mortality through infestation with paralysis tick, disturbance of maternity colonies, and collision with barbed-wire fences and power lines (Richards et al. 2008).|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES. It is present within a number of protected areas. Ongoing monitoring of Australian populations is needed.|
Bonaccorso, F. 1998. Bats of Papua New Guinea. Conservation International, Washington, DC, USA.
Duncan, A., Baker, G. B. and Montgomery, N. 1999. The Action Plan for Australian Bats. Environment Australia, Canberra, Australia.
Flannery, T. F. 1995. Mammals of the South-West Pacific and Moluccan Islands. Comstock/Cornell, Ithaca, Ny, USA.
Flannery, T. F. 1995. The Mammals of New Guinea, 2nd edition. Reed Books, Sydney, Australia.
Mickleburgh, S. P., Hutson, A. M. and Racey, P. A. 1992. Old World Fruit-Bats - An Action Plan for their Conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Richards, G. C., Spencer, H. J. and Fox, S. 2008. Spectacled Flying-fox, Pteropus conspicillatus. In: S. Van Dyck and R. Strahan (eds), The mammals of Australia. Third Edition, pp. 438-440. Reed New Holland, Sydney, Australia.
|Citation:||Helgen, K., Salas, L. & Bonaccorso, F. 2008. Pteropus conspicillatus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 April 2014.|
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