Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Pteropodidae

Scientific Name: Pteropus anetianus
Species Authority: Gray, 1870
Common Name(s):
English Vanauatu Flying Fox, White Flying-fox, White Flying Fox

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Helgen, K. & Hamilton, S.
Reviewer(s): Lamoreux, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team), Racey, P.A., Medellín, R. & Hutson, A.M. (Chiroptera Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable because it has an extent of occurrence of less than 20,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in the number of locations, and possibly a decline in the number of mature individuals due to hunting following typhoons.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Indeterminate (I)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to Vanuatu, and is recorded with certainty from: Vanua Lava, Santa Maria, Mota Lava, Pentecost, Aore, Malakula, Ambrym, Epi, Efate, Erromango, Anatom, Espirito Santo, Maewo, Ureparapara, Malo, Emao, Emae, Lopevi, Tongoa, Nguna, and Aoba. It is possibly extinct on Tana Island. It is a lowland species.
Countries occurrence:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is widespread and can be locally common, although it is susceptible to hunting pressure following typhoons.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This may be a partly diurnal species. Animals generally spend the day in small, quiet colonies. It has been found feeding on figs, breadfruit, and coconuts (Flannery 1995). Births are believed to take place in August and September. Individuals are usually seen roosting in small groups, of a few animals, in trees. It does not disperse well, and may not recolonise following extirpation episodes.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is considered to be vulnerable to local extinctions, most especially because of its apparent limited dispersal capability (Flannery 1995). It is hunted for food, but it generally does not appear to be overexploited, although populations can decline through increased hunting following typhoons (Mickleburgh et al. 1992).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES. It is present in the Vatthe Conservation Area. Studies into the taxonomic status of the many subspecies of this species are needed. Further research into the distribution, ecology, and threats to it is needed.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.4. Storms & flooding
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Flannery, T. F. 1995. Mammals of the South-West Pacific and Moluccan Islands. Comstock/Cornell, Ithaca, Ny, USA.

Mickleburgh, S. P., Hutson, A. M. and Racey, P. A. 1992. Old World Fruit-Bats - An Action Plan for their Conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Citation: Helgen, K. & Hamilton, S. 2008. Pteropus anetianus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T18716A8509388. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
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