|Scientific Name:||Pteronotus parnellii|
|Species Authority:||Gray, 1843|
Pteronotus parnellii J.A. Allen, 1911 subspecies fuscus
Pteronotus parnellii Koopman, 1955 subspecies gonavensis
Pteronotus parnellii Smith, 1972 subspecies mesoamericanus
Pteronotus parnellii Miller, 1902 subspecies mexicanus
Pteronotus parnellii Miller, 1902 subspecies portoricensis
Pteronotus parnellii G.M. Allen, 1917 subspecies pusillus
Pteronotus parnellii Wagner, 1843 subspecies rubiginosus
|Taxonomic Notes:||Subgenus Phyllodia. Hall (1981) reviewed the numerous Central American and Caribbean subspecies; also see Herd (1983), Timm and Genoways (2003). This taxon is a species complex; P. paraguanensis has been split off and some of the other subspecies like rubiginosus may also warrant recognition as distinct species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Miller, B., Reid, F., Arroyo-Cabrales, J., Cuarón, A.D. & de Grammont, P.C.|
|Reviewer/s:||Medellín, R. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is listed as Least Concern in because of its wide distribution, presumed large population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, tolerance to some degree of habitat modification, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species is found in Central, and South America, and the Caribbean. This bat ranges from Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, Guianas, Suriname, and Venezuela to S Sonora and S Tamaulipas (Mexico); Cuba; Jamaica; Puerto Rico; Hispaniola; St. Vincent; Trinidad and Tobago; Margarita Isl (Venezuela); La Gonave Isl (Haiti) (Simmons 2005). It inhabits at lowlands elevation, below 2,200 m (Reid, 1997), but in Venezuela it occur below 500 m (Handley, 1976).
Native:Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Dominican Republic; El Salvador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Mexico (Sonora, Tamaulipas); Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Puerto Rico; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Common to abundant in all types of lowland forest (Reid, 1997); rare in Ecuador.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It Venezuela the species generally lives in moist areas but tolerates both multistratal evergreen forest and dry deciduous forest (Handley, 1976), in middle elevations and in disturbed areas (Reid, 1997). Roost in caves and mines; it favors large caverns, but smaller roosts, possibly including hollow trees, are also used (Reid, 1997), and may co-occur with other species of mormoopids and phyllostomids (Herd, 1983). Activity begins at sunset (Baterman and Vaughan, 1974), although maximum movement can occur two hours later (Bonaccorso, 1979). Individuals remain active for 5 to 7 hours, then return to the day roost. Some may be active again shortly before dawn. Forest trails are often used as flyways or foraging areas; streams and creeks are seldom used. A medium-sized bat flying fast and straight along a forest trail is most likely to be of this common and widespread species (Whitaker and Findley, 1980). It feeds primarily on moths and beetles; other types of insects and some seeds have also been found in fecal material; insects are found by echolocation, but the echolocation pulse is unique in that the major portion of the call in not frequency modulated (Eisenberg, 1989).|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||The species occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its range.|
Baterman, G. C. and Vaughan, T. A. 1974. Nightly activities of mormoopidae bats. Journal of Mammalogy 55: 45-65.
Bonaccorso, F. J. 1978. Foraging and reproductive ecology in a Panamanian bat community. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 24: 359-408.
Hall, E. R. 1981. The Mammals of North America. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
Handley Jr., C. O. 1976. Mammals of the Smithsonian Venezuelan Project. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological Series 20: 1-91.
Herd, R. 1983. Pteronotus parnellii. Mammalian Species 209: 1-5.
Reid, F. 1997. A field guide to the mammals of Central America and southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Simmons, N. B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Timm, R. M. and Genoways, H. H. 2003. West Indian mammals from the Albert Schwartz Collection: Biological and historical information. Scientific Papers of the University of Kansas Natural History Museum 29: 1-47.
Whitaker Jr., J. O. and Findley, J. S. 1980. Foods eaten by some bats from Costa Rica and Panama. Journal of Mammalogy 61: 540-543.
|Citation:||Miller, B., Reid, F., Arroyo-Cabrales, J., Cuarón, A.D. & de Grammont, P.C. 2008. Pteronotus parnellii. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 April 2014.|
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