|Scientific Name:||Romulea multisulcata|
|Species Authority:||M.P.de Vos|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Raimondo, D. & Helme, N.|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Matlamela, P.|
The species is restricted to seven localities in the Bokkeveld Mountains, Gifberg flats and Namaqualand at Hondeklip Bay in South Africa. Its extent of occurrence is 7,500 km2 and it has an area of occupancy of less than 10 km2 (small vernal pools). The vernal pool habitat of this species is being degraded by trampling and grazing by stock animals and agriculture. It is listed as Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to South Africa (Northern and Western Cape Provinces) (Cook 2004). Bokkeveld Mountains, Gifberg flats and Namaqualand at Hondeklip Bay. Found only in seasonal pools which are dry in summer, on plateau of the Bokkeveld Mountains east of Vanrhynsdorp. Described from seasonal pools on the Bokkeveld Mountains near Nieuwoudtville in the Northern Cape Province but known also from the foot of the nearby Gifberg-Matsikamma massif, in the Western Cape, and from the coastal flats near Hondeklip Bay in central Namaqualand (Manning and Goldblatt 2001).
At the time of revision this geophyte was only known from the Bokkeveld escarpment east of Vanrhynsdorp. It has, however, since been collected near Hondeklip Bay in the Namaqualand rocky hills.
Known localities (South African National Biodiversity Institute 2007):
1) Van Rhynsdorp, road to Gifberg, in pool. (Manning 2002) / Van Rhynsdorp in seasonal pool (Helme 1997). Less than 60 plants.
2) Van Rhynsdorp just S.E. of Mauwerskop (Oliver 1974)
3) Van Rhynsdorp in flat clay pool, Randkraal towards national road (Snijman 1986)
4) Calvinia, Nieuwoudtville in vlei (Glen 1994)
5) Calvinia, between Van Rhyns Pass and Nieuwoudtville (De Vos 1968)
6) Between Menzieskraal and Nieuwoudtville (Markötter 1933)
From Manning and Goldblatt 2001:
7) 15 km E of Hondeklipbaai (Le Roux 1980)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Specific to vernal pools. Seeds are not adapted for long distance dispersal as they drop into the water. Many vernal pools do not have this species occurring in them indicating that dispersal is limited.
Estimated total population size: >10,000;
Estimated number of locations: seven;
Estimated number of subpopulations: seven known but a few more likely;
Overall populations decline (past): no;
Overall population decline (current): no
Estimated current localities:
|Habitat and Ecology:||Vernal pools. Grows in seasonal pools which are dry in the summer months. The surrounding vegetation is either Namaqualand Broken Veld or Dry Mountain Fynbos or Western Mountain Karoo Veld.|
Habitat being degraded due to heavy grazing and trampling of plants floating in shallow pools, observed by Helme at Vanrhysdorp subpopulation and by Raimondo at some Nieuwoudtville subpopulations. Agriculture is also posing a low to moderate level threat as some farmers plough up these seasonal pools. This has occurred in Nieudoutville in 2005, but it is not general practice as crops do not grow well in seasonally inundated areas (D. Raimondo pers. comm. 2006). P.Goldblatt and J.Manning (pers. comm. 2005) also state that mining is a potential threat.
The specialized habitat requirements of this species may result in it becoming more threatened.
|Conservation Actions:||Habitat and site management and protection is required as well as restoration of sites for increasing species suitable habitat. Population trends should also be monitored . Finally, legal protection measures for this species and its habitat should be put in place.|
Cook, C.D.K. 2004. Aquatic and wetland plants of southern Africa. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia, Pretoria.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Manning, J. and Goldblatt, P. 2001. A synoptic review of Romulea (Iridaceae: Crocoideaea) in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra including new species, biological notes, and a new infrageneric classification. Adansonia 23(1): 59-108.
South African National Biodiversity Institute. 2007. PRE (National Herbarium, Pretoria) Computerised Information System.
|Citation:||Raimondo, D. & Helme, N. 2010. Romulea multisulcata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 September 2014.|
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