|Scientific Name:||Pseudocheirus occidentalis (Thomas, 1888)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Pseudocheirus occidentalis has been synonymised with the Common Ringtail Possum P. peregrinus of eastern Australia by some authors, (e.g. Ride 1970, Groves 2005), or proposed as a subspecies of P. peregrinus. However, its distinctiveness is widely accepted, despite no published analyses of comparative morphology or molecular profiles (Woinarski et al. 2014)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2bce+3bce+4bce ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Burbidge, A.A. & Zichy-Woinarski, J.|
|Contributor(s):||How, R., Jones, B., Morris, K., Start, T. & Wayne, A.|
The Western Ringtail Possum has an area of occupancy of <500 km², small and severely fragmented subpopulations, and is continuing to decline, being threatened particularly by a drying climate, urban development, inappropriate fire regimes, and predation by Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cat (Felis catus). The subpopulation in the Upper Warren (Perup) was the largest prior to 2002 and underwent a severe decline of >95% (probably >99%) between 1998 and 2009. Remaining fragmented subpopulations in coastal habitats are also declining rapidly, equating to a population decline of >80% in the past 10 years. With rainfall in the south-west of Western Australia predicted to decline further and continuing urban coastal development, there is a projected continuing decline of >80% within the next 10 years.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The extent of occurrence of Western Ringtail Possums has contracted in the past and severely contracted in the recent past. Formerly it was patchily distributed across much of south-western Western Australia from 120 km south-east of Geraldton (where it is known from surface cave deposits) to the southern edge of the Nullarbor Plain (where it is also known from surface cave deposits), with the most inland recent records being from Tutanning Nature Reserve east of Pingelly (Shortridge 1909; Sampson 1971; Christensen et al. 1985; How et al. 1987; Baynes 1987; Jones et al. 1994a,b; Jones and Hillcox 1995; Burbidge and de Tores 1998).|
By ca 1980, about 80% of the original range was no longer occupied (Jones 2004). It persisted in the coastal strip between Bunbury and Albany (with the range extending inland in riparian habitat between the Collie and Blackwood Rivers), and in the Upper Warren region (Perup Nature Reserve, Greater Kingston National Park and adjacent State forest: Burbidge and de Tores 1998, Wayne et al. 2006). There are a few post-2000 Western Ringtail Possum records across some inland areas in south-western Australia from Yornup in the north to Northcliffe in the south, near Vasse Highway, near Carey forest block in the west and Lake Muir in the east (B. Jones pers. comm).
Currently, it occurs patchily in coastal areas from near Bunbury to the Leeuwin-Naturaliste National Park (with a small isolated translocated subpopulation further north near Dawesville) and near Albany (B. Jones pers. comm). Most of these fragmented habitat remnants are on private land. The largest recent inland subpopulation in the Upper Warren had declined to near extirpation by the mid- to late-2000s (Wayne et al. 2012), so there are now only two subpopulations.
It has been reintroduced to Lane-Poole Conservation Park near Dwellingup, Yalgorup National Park south of Mandurah and Leschenault Conservation Park near Bunbury. However, apart from some Yalgorup translocated animals establishing away from the release site near Dawesville, these reintroductions have failed due to poor-quality food resulting from a drying climate (B. Jones pers. comm.) and to feral cat predation (K. Morris pers. comm). There is a small subpopulation of <50 mature individuals (and therefore not included in this evaluation) in the Karakamia mainland island (Australian Wildlife Conservancy), near Perth.
There are five subpopulations: 'Southern Swan Coastal Plain', 'Cape to Cape' (Cape Naturaliste to Cape Leeuwin), 'Other Forest Rivers', 'Upper Warren' and 'Around Albany'.
Native:Australia (Western Australia)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||How et al. (1987) found that subpopulations between Busselton and Albany were small and rapidly diminishing. In the Upper Warren area, Western Ringtail Possums have declined severely in abundance (>95%, probably >99%) between 1998 and 2009 (Wayne et al. 2011, 2012) from an inferred pre-decline abundance of >10,000 individuals (A. Wayne pers comm). Jones et al. (2007) found high-density remnant subpopulations varying between <2 and 20 adults/ha in the Siesta-Kealy area west of Busselton, and Harewood (2009) found densities of ca 13 animals/ha in Busselton urban bushland reserves in 2008 and 2009; however, these high densities are exceptional—many remnant areas now harbour few animals. Scat scores at Ludlow National Park and nearby sites revealed a 30-55% site decline between 2002 and 2012 (B. Jones pers. comm). The results of surveys carried out by consultants for developers are generally unavailable; however, anecdotal and observational evidence indicates that other remnant subpopulations have recently undergone significant decline (B. Jones pers. comm). The major cause of the decline is thought to be climate change (drying and warming) leading to declining food quality: Western Ringtail Possums require relatively high quality food to recruit successfully due to their specialized digestive system. Other implicated factors include continuing habitat loss and fragmentation due to urban development, and predation by introduced Red Foxes and feral cats.|
Recent (2015) estimates by Dr B. Jones for each of the five subpopulations are:
The most recent estimate of numbers at Karakamia, made in 2010, was 38 animals, and spotlighting since then suggests a stable subpopulation (S. Legge pers. comm).
The Upper Warren subpopulation was estimated to be at least 11,000 mature individuals in 2006. Numbers in other regional areas were also significantly higher in 2006, with a total estimate of the population in 2006 being at least 18,000. Thus, available information strongly implies a population size reduction of >80% over the past 10 years. Because rainfall is projected to decline further in south-western Australia, and habitat destruction is likely to continue, this reduction is expected to continue.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The Western Ringtail Possum is an arboreal marsupial with a maximum body weight of 1,330 g for both sexes (Wayne et al. 2005a). It formerly occurred in a variety of vegetation types including coastal Peppermint (Agonis flexuosa) forests and woodlands and Peppermint / Tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala) associations, eucalypt associations of Jarrah (E. marginata) / Marri (Corymbia calophylla) / Wandoo (E. wandoo) (Christensen et al. 1985), Wandoo / Casuarina (Allocasuarina huegeliana) woodland in the wheatbelt, and presumably eucalypt woodland, mallee and mallee heath from the Hampton Tableland (Baynes 1987) and other areas. It is now almost exclusively restricted to coastal and near coastal Peppermint woodland between the Australind - Eaton area and Waychinicup National Park (Burbidge and de Tores 1998). The Upper Warren area had the only known sites where Western Ringtail Possums recently persisted in significant numbers in the absence of Peppermint.|
In coastal Peppermint habitat, Western Ringtail Possums build dreys as nesting/resting sites and uses tree hollows where available (e.g., Tuart and Marri). Where protection from introduced predators is provided, a wide range of nest sites on or near the ground has been recorded, including low shrub thickets (e.g., Basket Bush (Spyridium globulosum), Orange Wattle (Acacia saligna), Summer-scented Wattle (A. rostellifera)), sedges and rushes (ringtails have been commonly recorded nesting on the ground under sword sedge (Lepidosperma gladiatum) (How et al. 1984, Jones et al. 1994a). In the absence of predator control and in the absence of Peppermint or other nesting/drey material, or where fire is frequent, tree hollows and hollow logs are used almost exclusively, although urban animals will use roof spaces and other shelter. At translocation sites in the Jarrah forest near Dwellingup, where foxes are controlled, 20% of over 400 recorded day rest locations were at or below 1.5 m in height. These sites included hollow logs on the ground, fallen branches and debris on the ground, coppicing jarrah stumps, in and under Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea sp.) leaf ‘skirts’ and in Water Bush (Bossiaea sp.) and Karri Hazel (Trymalium sp.) In Jarrah forest near Manjimup, where foxes are also controlled, up to 70% of diurnal refuges were sites other than tree hollows, including the skirts of grass trees (Xanthorrhoea sp.), stump hollows and hollow logs (Burbidge and de Tores 1998, Wayne et al. 2000).
The diet of the Western Ringtail Possum is variable. When available, Peppermint leaves form the majority of the diet. In their absence, the dominant myrtaceous species are preferred (Jones et al. 1994b). In urban areas (e.g., Bunbury and Busselton), they are known to feed on a variety of garden species, including rose bush leaves and flowers and a variety of fruits. The digestive system reflects adaptation to myrtaceous and other foliage of low nutritional value. Western Ringtail Possums are caecum fermenters having a large caecum where fine digestive material is retained. Larger, coarse, less nutritious material is passed more rapidly. Ringtail Possums are also caecotrophic (i.e., during the day they ingest softer, finer faecal material to assist in returning bacteria to the caecum to aid digestion: Hume and Sakaguchi (1993), Hume et al. (1994)). Successful recruitment depends on seasonal availability of high-quality foliage. When food quality is poor, the sex ratio of young is biased towards males, and recruitment may fail (B. Jones pers. comm). Wayne (2005) reported that 84% of monitored deaths (mostly linked to predation) occurred between April and September, when both male and female body condition was significantly lower than October-March.
Wayne et al. (2006) investigated associations between the relative abundance of the Western Ringtail Possum and anthropogenic disturbances at local and landscape scales within the publicly-managed Jarrah forests of south-western Australia. Logging, fire, fox control and forest fragmentation were investigated in relation to the relative abundance of ringtails at 90 sites within an area of 285,000 ha of the Upper Warren east of Manjimup; the location of the last remaining substantial population of the Western Ringtail Possum in jarrah forest. Overall, abundance was greatest in areas with limited anthropogenic disturbance. At the local scale, abundance was negatively associated with greater fire intensity. At the landscape scale, it was positively associated with fox control and negatively associated with forest fragmentation and distance from non-remnant vegetation (i.e., agriculture and tree plantations). Abundance was also greatest in predominantly unlogged landscapes and in forests that had been regrowing for an average of 40 years since the landscape was most recently logged; in other words, where logging was historically least intense.
Western Ringtail Possums are often killed in moderate or high intensity fires (Inions 1985) and by logging (Morris et al. 2000). Both impacts also expose survivors to elevated predation. Where most resident possums use predominantly low shelter sites, or dreys in the mid-storey, even low intensity fires can severely reduce numbers. Most resident subpopulations appear to require some substantial or dominant proportion of their local habitat to have remained largely unburned and unlogged for periods of at least 2-4 decades (Wayne 2008, Jones et al. 2007). By 2012, it was clear that drey-using fragmented subpopulations (in habitat with only rare, small fire events) were more resilient and persistent than subpopulations in habitat subject to broad-scale fire effects (wildfires or low-intensity prescribed fires).
Young have been recorded as being born throughout the year, with peaks in April to July and September to November (Jones et al. 1994b, Wayne et al. 2005a), but the breeding season can vary. Sexual maturity is reached at about one year. Litter size is usually one, with litters of two being rare, unlike the Common Ringtail Possum (P. peregrinus). Sex ratios can vary, depending on food quality: females predominate when food quality is high, males when it is low. Longevity is unknown. Life spans of P. peregrinus to eight years have been recorded (Jones et al. 1990) and longevity in captivity for that species is up to 10 years (AnAge 2012). Available information suggests that most Western Ringtail Possums do not survive in the wild beyond 3-6 years. Generation length for the Western Ringtail Possum is here assumed to be ca 3 years.
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||3|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
Current threats are:
Note that some threats are synergistic.
Recovery goals, objectives, criteria for success and failure, and recovery actions are described in the Recovery Plan (Department of Parks and Wildlife 2014); however, this was drafted when the species was listed as Vulnerable.
The Recovery Plan includes >30 actions. The most urgent ones are:
Monitoring. It is clear that there is insufficient monitoring, especially noting the short-term crash that happened at the Upper Warren where the subpopulation went from >10 000 (probably many tens of thousands) to near zero in about 10 years, and average species’ longevity of c. 3 years. Of particular concern is declining rainfall and increasing temperatures and resulting effects on survival and recruitment, not only in the Bunbury to Augusta area, but also near Albany where there has been a series of dry years and severe, lightning-caused fires in the conservation estate.
Research into effects of drying climate, nutritional status of food and how it relates to survival and recruitment. This should include research into the effects of rainfall and artificial watering on the nutritional quality of food and hence recruitment.
Predation. Conduct experiments with Eradicat (registered feral cat bait) in key Western Ringtail Possum habitat and measure prey response.
Captive breeding. If the species continues to decline at rates seen in the past, captive breeding may be needed at some future time. A pilot study to develop husbandry techniques is indicated.
Abbott, I. 2001. Aboriginal names of mammal species in south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3: 433-486.
AnAge. 2012. The animal aging and longevity database. Available at: http://genomics.senescence.info/species/.
Baynes, A. 1987. The original mammal fauna of the Nullarbor and southern peripheral regions: evidence from skeletal remains in superficial cave deposits. In: N. L. McKenzie and A. C. Robinson (eds), A biological survey of the Nullarbor region, South and Western Australia in 1984, pp. 139-152. South Australian Department of Environment and Planning, Adelaide.
Burbidge, A.A. and de Tores, P. 1998. Western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) interim recovery plan 1997-1999. Interim Recovery Plan No. 17. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.
Christensen, P., Annels, A., Liddelow, G. and Skinner, P. 1985. Vertebrate fauna in the southern forests of Western Australia. A survey. Forests Department of Western Australia, Bulletin 94.
Cleugh, H., Stafford Smith, M., Battaglia, M. and Graham, P. 2011. Climate change: science and solutions for Australia. CSIRO, Canberra.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 2009. Significant impact guidelines for the vulnerable western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) in the southern Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia. . Available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/western-ringtail-possum.html.
de Tores, P. J. 2008. Western Ringtail Possum, Pseudocheirus occidentalis. In: S. Van Dyck and R. Strahan (eds), The mammals of Australia. Third Edition, pp. 253-255. Reed New Holland, Sydney, Australia.
de Tores, P.J., Hayward, M.W. and Rosier, S.M. 2004. The western ringtail possum, Pseudocheirus occidentalis, and the quokka, Setonix brachyurus. Case studies: Western Shield Review, February 2003. Conservation Science Western Australia 5: 235-258.
Dickman, C.R. 1996. Overview of the impacts of feral cats on Australian native fauna. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Diprotodontia. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 43-70. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Harewood, G. 2009. An assessment of the distribution and abundance of Western Ringtail Possums (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) in Busselton urban public reserves. Second phase results – 2009. Report to the Geographe Catchment Council Inc, Busselton.
How, R.A., Barnett, J.L., Bradley, A.D., Humphreys, W.J. and Martin, R.W. 1984. The population biology of Pseudocheirus peregrinus in a Leptospermum laevigatum thicket. In: A. Smith and I. Hume (eds), Possums and gliders, pp. 261-268. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
How, R.A., Dell, J. and Humphreys, W.F. 1987. The ground vertebrate fauna of coastal areas between Busselton and Albany, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 13: 553-574.
Hume, I.D. and Sakaguchi, E. 1993. A scheme for the functional classification of mammalian hindgut fermenters. In: M.L. Augee (ed.), Abstracts: Sixth International Theriological Congress, University of New South Wales, Sydney.
Hume, I.D., Foley, W.J. and Chilcott, M.J. 1984. Physiological mechanisms of foliage digestion in the Greater Glider and Ringtail Possum (Marsupialia: Pseudocheiridae). . In: A. Smith and I. Hume (eds), Possums and gliders, pp. 247-251. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Inions, G.B. 1985. The interactions between possums, habitat, trees and fire. Honours thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
Jones, B. 2004. The possum fauna of Western Australia: decline, persistence and status. In: R.L. Goldingay and S.M. Jackson (eds), The Biology of the Australian Possums and Gliders, Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Jones, B.A., How, R.A. and Kitchener, D.J. 1994. A field study of Pseudocheirus occidentalis (Marsupialia: Petauridae). I. Distribution and habitat. Wildlife Research 21: 175-187.
Jones, B.A., How, R.A. and Kitchener, D.J. 1994. A field study of Pseudocheirus occidentalis (Marsupialia: Petauridae). II. Population Studies. Wildlife Research 21: 189-201.
Jones, B. and Hillcox, S. 1995. A survey of the possums Trichosurus vulpecula and Pseudocheirus occidentalis and their habitats in forest at Ludlow, Western Australia. West Australian Naturalist 20: 139-150.
Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A.A. and Morris, K. 1996. The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Australasian Marsupial and Monotreme Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.
Morris, K., Johnson, B., Rooney, J. and Ward, C. 2000. The short-term impacts of timber harvesting and associated activities on the abundance of medium-sized mammals in the Jarrah forest of Western Australia. In: J.L. Craig, N. Mitchell and D.A. Saunders (eds), Conservation in production environments: managing the matrix, pp. 60-70. Surrey Beatty and Sons: Chipping Norton, Chipping Norton.
Ride, W.D.L. 1970. A guide to the native mammals of Australia. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Sampson, J.C. 1971. The biology of Bettongia penicillata Gray, 1837. The University of Western Australia.
Shortridge, G.C. 1909. An account of the geographical distribution of marsupials and monotremes of south-western Australia having special reference to the specimens collected during the Balston Expedition of 1904-1907. Proceedings of the Zoological Society (London) 1909: 803-48.
Wayne, A.F. 2005. The ecology of the Koomal (Trichosurus vulpecula hypoleucus) and Ngwayir (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) in the jarrah forests of south-western Australia. Australian National University.
Wayne, A.F., Cowling, A., Lindenmayer, D.B., Ward, G.C., Vellios, C.V., Donnelly, C.F. and Calver, M.C. 2006. The abundance of a threatened arboreal marsupial in relation to anthropogenic disturbances at local and landscape scales in Mediterranean-type forests in south-western Australia. Biological Conservation 127: 463-476.
Wayne, A.F., Cowling, A., Rooney, J.F., Ward, C.G., Wheeler, I.B., Lindenmayer, D.B. and Donnelly, C.F. 2005. Factors affecting the detection of possums by spotlighting in Western Australia. Wildlife Research 32: 689-700.
Wayne, A.F., Rooney, J.F., Ward, C.G., Vellios, C.V. and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2005. The life history of Pseudocheirus occidentalis (Pseudocheiridae) in the jarrah forest of south-western Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 53: 325-337.
Wayne, A.F., Ward, C., Rooney, J. and Wheeler, I. 2000. The immediate impacts of timber harvesting and associated activities on the ngwayir (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) in the jarrah forest of Kingston State Forest Block. Progress Report. . Department of Conservation and Land Management, Manjimup.
Wayne, A., Maxwell, M., Nicholls, P., Pacioni, C., Reiss, A., Smith, A., Thompson, A., Vellios, C., Ward, C., Wayne, J., Wilson, I. and Williams, M. 2011. The Woylie Conservation Research Project: investigating the cause(s) of woylie declines in the Upper Warren region Progress Report December 2011. Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth.
Wayne, A., Ward, C., Vellios, C., Maxwell, M., Wilson, I. Wayne, J., Ward, B., Liddellow, G., Renwick, J., and Orell, P. 2012. Ngwayir (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) declines in the Upper Warren, the issue in brief. Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth.
Wilson, K., de Tores, P. and Spencer, P.B.S. 2009. Isolation and characterisation of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the western ringtail possum, Pseudocheirus occidentalis. Conservation Genetics Resources 1: 123-125.
Woinarski, J.C.Z., Burbidge, A.A. and Harrison, P.L. 2014. The Action Plan for Australian Mammals 2012. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
|Citation:||Burbidge, A.A. & Zichy-Woinarski, J. 2017. Pseudocheirus occidentalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T18492A21963100.Downloaded on 19 March 2018.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|