|Scientific Name:||Elops affinis|
|Species Authority:||Regan 1909|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Closely related to Elops saurus of the western Atlantic.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Adams, A., Guindon, K., Horodysky, A., MacDonald, T., McBride, R., Shenker, J. & Ward, R.|
|Reviewer(s):||Raynal, M. & Harwell, H.|
Although Elops affinis is widespread, little is known about the life history, ecology, population status, fisheries interactions, or potential threats to this species. It is known to be impacted by dams and reduced river flow in some areas; however, the quantitative effects of this threat are unknown. Therefore, this species is listed as Data Deficient.
|Range Description:||This species is present in the eastern Pacific stretching from southern California to Peru, including Isla del Coco (Eschmeyer and Foung 2008, Follett 1960).|
Native:Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; United States
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are numerous museum records for this species (more than 80 specimens) (accessed through the Fishnet2 Portal, www.fishnet2.net, 2011-05-14). Landings data are unavailable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This pelagic oceanodromous species occurs in schools in shallow inshore areas. It penetrates lagoons and estuaries (Whitehead and Rodríguez-Sánchez 1995) in waters up to 10 m depth. Spawning probably occurs in the open ocean and leptocephali larvae migrate towards coastal areas (Whitehead and Rodríguez-Sánchez 1995). Hendricks et al. (1966) reported them in polyculture involving shrimp and fish (up to 40 cm). Maximum size reported is 91 cm TL (Getabu 1987), although commonly reported to 50 cm TL (Whitehead and Rodríguez-Sánchez 1995).|
|Use and Trade:||This species struggles vigorously when caught on hook and line. It has low commercial value due its numerous bones (Whitehead and Rodríguez-Sánchez 1995).|
|Major Threat(s):||This species penetrates estuaries, where it is impacted by dams and reduced river flow in some areas (e.g., Colorado River) (Schooley and Marsh 2007). It has low commercial value due its numerous bones (Whitehead and Rodríguez-Sánchez 1995).|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Tropical Eastern Pacific region.|
Eschmeyer, W.N. and Fong, J.D. 2008. Species by Family/subfamily in the Catalog of Fishes . Available at: http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/SpeciesByFamily.asp. (Accessed: March 29, 2011).
Fishnet2 Portal. 2011. Available at: http://www.fishnet2.net.
Follett, W.I. 1960. The fresh-water fishes-their origins and affinities. Systematic Zoology 9: 212-232.
Getabu, A. 1987. Aspects of the Lake Victoria fisheries with emphasis on Oreochromis niloticus and Alestes sadleri from the Nyanza Gulf. FAO Fish Rep 389: 416-431.
Hendricks, M.E., Salgado-Barragán, J. and Meda-Martínez, M.A. 1966. Abundance and diversity of macrofauna (fish and decapod crustaceans) in Penaeus vannamei culture ponds in western Mexico. Aquaculture 143: 61-73.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
IUCN and UNEP. 2014. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Cambridge, UK Available at: www.wdpa.org .
Robertson, D.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Shore fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific: an information system. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá.
Whitehead, P.J.P. and Rodríguez-Sánchez, R. 1995. Elopidae. Malachos. In: W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds), Guía FAO para la Identificación de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca. Pacífico Centro-Oriental, pp. 1065-1066. FAO, Rome.
|Citation:||Adams, A., Guindon, K., Horodysky, A., MacDonald, T., McBride, R., Shenker, J. & Ward, R. 2012. Elops affinis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 March 2015.|
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