Symphurus atramentatus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Pleuronectiformes Cynoglossidae

Scientific Name: Symphurus atramentatus
Species Authority: Jordan & Bollman, 1890
Common Name(s):
English Inkspot Tonguefish, Halfspotted Tonguefish
Spanish Lengua Arco Iris, Hojita, Lengua de Aleta Bandeada, Lengua Mediomanchada, Lengua Tintorera
French Langue Encrière

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-04-29
Assessor(s): Nielsen, J.G., Munroe, T., Tyler, J. & Robertson, R.
Reviewer(s): Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)
This species is common, has a broad distribution, has no major threats, and is found within several Marine Protected Areas. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This eastern tropical Pacific species is found from southern Baja California and the Gulf of California to northern Peru, and the Galapagos islands (Munroe et al. 1995).
Countries occurrence:
Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
Lower depth limit (metres): 120
Upper depth limit (metres): 1
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is common within its range. There is no population information for this species.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found over a variety of soft-bottom substrates, occasionally near reefs. Small specimens may be taken from tide pools and other shallow habitats. It feeds mainly on small benthic invertebrates, has pelagic eggs and larvae, and has been found from 1-120m of depth.
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species specific conservation measures. However, this species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in the eastern tropical Pacific region.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.3. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability: Marginal  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.5. Inter-Reef Soft Substrate
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.6. Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education

Bibliography [top]

Froese, R., Palomares, M. and Pauly, D. 2002. Estimation of life history key facts of fishes. Available at:

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

IUCN and UNEP. 2014. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Cambridge, UK Available at: .

Munroe, T.A., Krupp, F. and Schneider, M. 1995. Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. FAO, Rome.

Robertson, D.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Shore fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific: an information system. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá.

Citation: Nielsen, J.G., Munroe, T., Tyler, J. & Robertson, R. 2010. Symphurus atramentatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T183810A8181050. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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