|Scientific Name:||Symphurus atramentatus|
|Species Authority:||Jordan & Bollman, 1890|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Nielsen, J.G., Munroe, T., Tyler, J. & Robertson, R.|
|Reviewer(s):||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
This species is common, has a broad distribution, has no major threats, and is found within several Marine Protected Areas. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This eastern tropical Pacific species is found from southern Baja California and the Gulf of California to northern Peru, and the Galapagos islands (Munroe et al. 1995).|
Native:Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common within its range. There is no population information for this species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found over a variety of soft-bottom substrates, occasionally near reefs. Small specimens may be taken from tide pools and other shallow habitats. It feeds mainly on small benthic invertebrates, has pelagic eggs and larvae, and has been found from 1-120m of depth.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species specific conservation measures. However, this species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas in the eastern tropical Pacific region.|
Froese, R., Palomares, M. and Pauly, D. 2002. Estimation of life history key facts of fishes. Available at: www.fishbase.org.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
IUCN and UNEP. 2014. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Cambridge, UK Available at: www.wdpa.org .
Munroe, T.A., Krupp, F. and Schneider, M. 1995. Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. FAO, Rome.
Robertson, D.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Shore fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific: an information system. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá.
|Citation:||Nielsen, J.G., Munroe, T., Tyler, J. & Robertson, R. 2010. Symphurus atramentatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 September 2014.|
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