|Scientific Name:||Paralichthys californicus|
|Species Authority:||(Ayres, 1859)|
Hippoglossus californicus Ayres, 1859
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Lea, B. & van der Heiden, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and its population is stable in the United States. It is a popular species for sport and commercial fishing, however this is not thought to pose any significant threat. It is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from Washington state, USA to Magdalena Bay, Baja California.|
Native:Mexico; United States
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population for this species appears to be stable in the majority of its range off the coast of California (Haugen 1990). Thjs species has shown a historical decline in commercial landings from a maximum of 5,000,000 lbs in 1919, mainly due to overfishing. In the late 1950s and 1960s, there was a slight increase in landings following warmer waters during El Niño events. Annual landings in 1970 were a historical low of 257,000 lb. Since 1980 however, landings have been relatively stable and average a little more than 1 million lb annually (California Fish and Game 2004).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species lives on soft sand and sandy mud bottoms in coastal areas to depths of 180 m. It can also be found in larger bays and estuaries.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is an important sport and commercial fish. It is sometimes caught with trammel nets, and it is marketed as fresh fillet (Hensley 1995). It is also occasionally caught in shrimp trawling activities.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species population is likely limited by the amount of available nursery habitat, as juvenile halibut appear to be dependent on shallow water embayments as nursery areas. The overall decline in halibut landings is considered to correspond to a decline in shallow water habitats in southern California associated with dredging and filling of bays and wetlands (California Dept of Fish and Game 2004).|
|Conservation Actions:||The fishing of this species is stricty regulated in the USA, and it is recommended that similar measures should be implemented in Mexico.|
Ayres, W.O. 1859. On new fishes of the Californian coast. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) 2: 25-52.
California Department of Fish and Game. 2004. Annual Status of the Fisheries Report through 2003. California Department of Fish and Game, Marine Region.
Haugen, C.W. 1990. The California halibut, Paralichthys californicus, resource and fisheries. California Dept of Fish and Game.
Hensley, D.A. 1995. Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. FAO, Rome.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Robertson, D.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Shore fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific: an information system. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá.
|Citation:||Lea, B. & van der Heiden, A. 2010. Paralichthys californicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 September 2014.|
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