|Scientific Name:||Paralabrax humeralis|
|Species Authority:||(Valenciennes, 1828)|
Serranus humeralis Valenciennes, 1828
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Smith-Vaniz, B, Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina, H., Salas, E., Guzman-Mora, A.G. & Bearez, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
This species is found primarily in Ecuador, Peru and Chile. Although considered abundant in at least some parts of its range, it is targeted in commercial fisheries. Reported catch landings in Peru have declined by over 60% in the past 10 years (1996-2006), although detailed effort information is not known. As Peru represents more than half of this species' distribution, this species' population may have declined by at least 30% over a 10 year period. However, more information is needed on landings in other parts of its range, along with catch effort information, as this species may warrant a threat category. It is listed as Data Deficient.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern Colombia to northern Chile.|
Native:Chile; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no population information available for this species. It is rarely seen in fish markets in Ecuador, but is abundant in fish markets in Peru and northern Chile. However, there has been a more than 60% decline in reported landings of this species in Peru over the past 10 years (1996-2006) (FAO 2009).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This benthopelagic species occurs in schools (Chirichigno 1974), and is found on rocky substrata to 180 m. It feeds on mobile benthic crustaceans, octupus, squid, cuttlefish, and bony fishes.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is commercially fished throughout its range, and is targeted in Peru and Chile.|
|Major Threat(s):||Catch landings in Peru without catch effort show a steady decline in catch over the past 20 years from a peak of 7,500 mt in 1985 to 700 mt in 2006 (FAO 2009). However, more detailed information is needed on catch effort and mean catch body size to more accurately determine the impact of harvest levels on this species' population. Also, it is not known how oceanographic environmental changes associated with El Niño/ENSO events within its range may affect this species population (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004, Edgar et al. 2009).|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known species specific conservation measures. The few small Marine Protected Areas present within its range are unlikely to offer sufficient protection for this species.|
Chen, D., Cane, M.A., Kaplan, A., Zebiak, S.E and Huang, D. 2004. Predictability of El Niño over the past 148 years. Nature 428: 733-736.
Chirichigno, N.F. 1974. Clave para identificar los peces marinos del Perú. Informe del Instituto del Mar del Perú 44: 387.
Edgar, G.J., Banks, S.A., Brandt, M., Bustamante, R.H., Chiriboga, A., Earle, S.A., Garske, L.E., Glynn, P.W., Grove, J.S., Henderson, S., Hickman, C.P., Miller, K.A., Rivera, F. and Wellington, G.M. 2009. El Niño, grazers and fisheries interact to greatly elevate extinction risk for Galapagos marine species. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02117.x.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2009. FAO Fishery Statistics: catches and landings. FAO, Rome.
Glynn, P.W. and Ault, J.S. 2000. A biogeographic analysis and review of the far eastern Pacific coral reef region. Coral Reefs 19: 1-23.
Heemstra, P.C. 1995. Serranidae. Meros, serranos, guasetas, enjambres, baquetas, indios, loros, gallinas, cabrillas, garropas. FAO, Rome.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
IUCN and UNEP. 2014. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Cambridge, UK Available at: www.wdpa.org .
Robertson, D.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Shore fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific: an information system. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá.
Soto, C.G. 2001. The potential impacts of global climate change on marine protected areas. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11(3): 181-195.
|Citation:||Smith-Vaniz, B, Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina, H., Salas, E., Guzman-Mora, A.G. & Bearez, P. 2010. Paralabrax humeralis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2015.|
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