|Scientific Name:||Cratinus agassizii|
|Species Authority:||Steindachner 1878|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bearez, P., Merlen, G. & Rivera, F.|
|Reviewer(s):||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
This species is known from southern Ecuador, northern Peru and the Galápagos Islands. Given its shallow water habitat and association with mangroves at least during its juvenile stage, this species is threatened by continued decline in mangrove habitat and overfishing throughout its restricted range. There is less than 5,000 km² of mangrove habitat left in northern Peru (the majority of its range), with continued mangrove habitat decline and targeted fishing for this species throughout its restricted range. It is listed as Near Threatened. However, more information is needed on the remaining mangrove habitat in the Ecuadorian part of its range, and on the impacts of overfishing on this species population, as it may qualify for a higher threat category.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, as is found from southern Ecuador to northern Peru, including the Galapagos Islands. This species has an area of occupancy estimated to be less than 5,000 km2 based on shallow water and mangrove habitat in northern Peru, where the majority of its population occurs.|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no population information available for this species. It is considered to be common in continental Ecuador and northern Peru, moderately common in the Galapagos, and only occasional in south to central Peru.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This demersal species is found in shallow inlets and bays and mangrove areas to depths of 25 m. It is occasionally seen on rocky reefs. It is most common in areas of patchy rock and sand. Its diet consists mainly of bony fishes.|
|Major Threat(s):||The juveniles of this restricted range species are often found in association with mangroves, a habitat threatened by extraction and coastal development in many parts of the Eastern Pacific (Jimenez 1994). Surveys in other regions show that the reduction of mangroves brought some fish species to extinction (Ferreira et al. 2005). It is estimated that less than 5,000 km² of mangrove habitat is left in northern Peru (FAO 2007), which is the majority of its range. This species is also important in commercial fisheries, and is vulnerable to overfishing given its relatively shallow water, near shore habitat. In Galapagos, this species is heavily fished, and it is occasional in fish markets in Peru and Ecuador. Its relatively low abundance may possibly be caused historical overfishing as this is a highly desired food fish.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species specific conservation measures in place. This species' distribution includes a number of Marine Protected Areas such as the Galapagos Marine Reserve (WDPA 2006) and Machalilla Marine Protected Area. However, better enforcement of regulations are required to adequately safeguard species in these and other Marine Protected Areas.|
Ferreira, C.E.L., Gasparini, J.L., Carvalho-Filho, A. and Floeter, S.R. 2005. A recently extinct parrotfish species from Brazil. Coral Reefs 24: 128.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2007. The World's Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153. FAO, Rome.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
IUCN and UNEP. 2014. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Cambridge, UK Available at: www.wdpa.org .
Jiménez, J.A. 1994. El manejo de los manglares en el Pacífico de Centroamérica. Editorial Fundación UNA, capítulo III: El manejo de los manglares en el Pacifico de Centro America.
Robertson, D.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Shore fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific: an information system. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá.
|Citation:||Bearez, P., Merlen, G. & Rivera, F. 2010. Cratinus agassizii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 May 2015.|
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