|Scientific Name:||Propithecus verreauxi|
|Species Authority:||A. Grandidier, 1867|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Vulnerable as the species is thought to have undergone a reduction of more than 30% over the past 30 years (assuming a generation length of 10 years) due primarily to a decline in area and quality of habitat within the known range of the species and due to levels of exploitation.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the island of Madagascar. The Tsiribihina River is believed to be the northern limit of the range, ranging as far as Tolagnaro and the Andohahela National Park in the south-east. Sea level to 1,300 m (Mittermeier et al. 2008).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Significant variation in population densities has been noted in different forest types, but even very small forest patches can support sizeable populations of this sifaka. Population densities have been estimated at 47 individuals/km² in the degraded forests of Bealoka, at 150-200 individuals/km² at Berenty (Jolly et al. 1982; O’Connor 1987) and at 860 individuals/km² at Antserananomby; however, the population density at the last mentioned site had declined to about 49/km² as of 2004 (Kelley et al. 2007).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a diurnal lemur that inhabits tropical dry lowland and montane forest, including spiny bush, brush-and scrub thickets, and riparian forests, and is also recorded in lowland rainforest in the south-east. It tends to live in small to medium multi-male groups that range from 2-14 (average five to six individuals), with home ranges sometimes exceeding 10 ha. Breeding is seasonal, with mating taking place in January and February. Infants are almost completely independent at six months (Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein). The age at which sexual maturity is reached varies with habitat. For example, in the spiny forests of Beza Mahafaly fewer than half the females have reproduced by six years of age (Richard et al. 2002), but three-year-old females are routinely seen with newborns at Berenty (Jolly 1966).|
|Major Threat(s):||Despite this species' wide distribution, the two principal habitats upon which it depends for survival -- spiny desert and riparian forest -- are under threat due to the need for timber, charcoal and fuelwood (Sussman and Richard 1986). Although hunting of P. verreauxi is fady (taboo) to several of the tribes living in its range (e.g., Antandroy, Mahafaly), it is hunted by other tribes (e.g., Sakalava) and immigrants to the region (Goodman and Raselimanana 2003). In the Isalo region, this lemur is known as sifaka-bilany or “sifaka of the cooking pot,” but it is unclear whether this is because of its popularity as a food item or because of the sooty black appearance of individuals from this part of the species’ range (Mittermeier et al. 2008).|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. This species occurs in five national parks (Andohahela, Isalo, Kirindy-Mitea, Tsimanampetsotsa, and Zombitse-Vohibasia), two special reserves (Andranomena and Beza-Mahafaly), two private reserves (Analabe and Berenty), the Kiridindy CFPF, and a number of unprotected forests (Mittermeier et al. 2008). As of 2007, there are no animals held in captivity.|
Goodman, S. M. and Raselimanana, A. 2003. Hunting of wild animals by Sakalava of the Menabe region: A field report from Kirindy-Mitea. Lemur News 8: 4-6.
Jolly, A. 1966. Lemur Behavior. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Jolly, A., Gustafson, H., Oliver, W. L. R. and O’Connor, S. M. 1982. Propithecus verreauxi population and ranging at Berenty, Madagascar, 1975 and 1980. Folia Primatologica 39: 124–144.
Kelley, E. A., Sussman, R. W. and Muldoon, K. M. 2007. The status of lemur species at Antserananomby: an update. Primate Conservation 22: 71-77.
Mittermeier, R., Louis, E., Hawkins, F., Langrand, O., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Rasoloarison, R., Rajaobelina, S. and Richardson, M. 2008. Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Conservation International.
O’Connor, S. M. 1987. The effect of human impact on vegetation and the consequences to primates in two riverine forests, southern Madagascar. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge.
Richard, A. F., Dewar, R. E., Schwartz, M. and Ratsirarson, J. 2002. Life in the slow lane? Demography and life histories of male and female sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi verreuaxi). Journal of Zoology (London) 256: 421–436.
Sussman, R. W. 1974. Ecological distinctions in sympatric species of Lemur. In: R. D. Martin, G. A. Doyle and A. C. Walker (eds), Prosimian Biology, pp. 75–108. Duckworth, London, UK.
Sussman, R. W. and Richard, A. 1986. Lemur conservation in Madagascar: the status of lemurs in the south. Primate Conservation 7: 85–92.
|Citation:||Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. 2008. Propithecus verreauxi. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 13 December 2013.|
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