Propithecus tattersalli 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Indriidae

Scientific Name: Propithecus tattersalli
Species Authority: Simons, 1988
Common Name(s):
English Golden-crowned Sifaka, Tattersall's Sifaka
Spanish Indris Sifaca
Taxonomic Source(s): Simons, E. L. 1988. A new species of Propithecus (Primates) from northeast Madagascar. Folia Primatologica 50: 143-51.
Taxonomic Notes: This species was first observed north of Vohémar in 1974 by Dr. Ian Tattersall, provisionally identified as a variant of the Silky Sifaka (then P. diadema candidus; Tattersall 1982) and eventually described as a distinct species more than a decade later (Simons 1988).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A3cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F.
Justification:

A population reduction of ≥80% is suspected to be met in the future (over a 3-generation time period of 18-52.5 years). This is based on a predicted continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat due to slash-and-burn agriculture, uncontrolled grass fires, wood extraction for housing and firewood production, logging of precious hard woods, and gold mining, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Critically Endangered.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species has a restricted distribution, limited to forest patches in north-eastern Madagascar between the Loky River to the north and the Manambato River to the south, centering around the town of Daraina and covering approximately 245,000 ha of human-altered savanna, dry scrub, agricultural land, gallery forests and forest fragments (Mittermeier et al. 2008). It has been found in the coastal/littoral forest Analabe near L. Sahaka. It ranges from 50-700 m (Meyers and Ratsirarson 1989, Vargas et al. 2002).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Madagascar
Additional data:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Lower elevation limit (metres):50
Upper elevation limit (metres):700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Recent population density estimates range from 10-23 individuals/km² in forest and the total population is believed to be 6,000 to 10,000 animals (Vargas et al. 2002). Overall, population figures are declining due to habitat destruction and hunting.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The forests throughout this sifaka’s range are remnant tracts isolated by degraded grasslands. Within the distribution range of the species there are 75 remaining forest fragments, and Propithecus are present in 45 of these. Most are deciduous formations similar in composition to dry western Malagasy forests (Meyers and Ratsirarson 1989, Vargas et al. 2002). Groups range in size from three to 10 individuals (an average of five) and occupy territories of 9-12 ha. This species is primarily diurnal, though sometimes crepuscular during the rainy season, and sleeps at night in high emergent trees. Sexual maturity in both sexes occurs at around two and a half years. Mating occurs in late January, births in late June after a 165–176-day gestation, and weaning in December (Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):6-17.5

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

In recent years hunting for food has become a serious problem, especially by itinerant gold miners who, unlike the local people, do not consider the animals fady (taboo). 

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to the species are slash-and-burn agriculture, uncontrolled grass fires, wood extraction for housing and firewood production, logging of precious hardwoods, hunting and gold mining. Since 2012, mining has become a serious threat to this species, and is expected to increase significantly due to intense gold rushes that impact hugely on available habitat. Hunting from migrant gold miners also poses a significant threat. Although gold miners were not observed to hunt this animal in 1995 during a period of intense mining activity (indeed, they even fed these animals on a daily basis in their camps near Daraina), more recent information indicates that these miners may have become a problem, at least in some areas (Mittermeier et al. 2008).


Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. P. tattersalli occurs in the Loky-Manambato Protected Area (57,000 ha), which was declared primarily for its benefit in the Daraina region in 2005. There are currently none in captivity. Research into sifaka captivity is needed to establish ex situ conservation for this species. 




Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Meyers, D. and Ratsirarson, J. 1989. Distribution and conservation of two endangered sifakas in northern Madagascar. Primate Conservation 10: 82–87.

Mittermeier, R., Louis, E., Hawkins, F., Langrand, O., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Rasoloarison, R., Rajaobelina, S. and Richardson, M. 2008. Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Conservation International.

Quéméré, E., Amelot, X., Pierson, J., Crouau-Roy, B., Chikhi, L. 2012. Genetic data suggest a natural prehuman origin of open habitats in northern Madagascar and question the deforestation narrative in this region. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(32): 13028-13033.

Simons, E. L. 1988. A new species of Propithecus (Primates) from northeast Madagascar. Folia Primatologica 50: 143-51.

Tattersall, I. 1982. The Primates of Madagascar. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

Vargas, A. Jiménez, I., Palomares, F. and Palacios, M. J. 2002. Distribution, status, and conservation needs of the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli). Biological Conservation 108(3): 325–334.


Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Propithecus tattersalli. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T18352A16116567. . Downloaded on 26 September 2016.
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