|Scientific Name:||Pseudogramma axelrodi|
|Species Authority:||Allen & Robertson, 1995|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Smith-Vaniz, B, Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina, H., Salas, E. & Guzman-Mora, A.G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
This species is restricted to Clipperton Island reefs, and has an area of occupancy of less than 10 km². Regional experts support the plausible threat of the increased duration and frequency of ENSO events that can cause severe and rapid declines for restricted-range, shallow-water species in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Because it is found in deeper water and was observed to be common during at least one El Niño event, this species is listed as Near Threatened under Criterion D2.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Clipperton Island reefs, and has an area of occupancy of less than 10 km².|
Native:France (Clipperton I.); French Polynesia
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no population information for this species. This species is common, but cryptic.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a reef-associated cryptic species that is found in coral reefs from 10-100 m depth. The diet consists of mobile benthic crustaceans and bony fishes.|
In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, severe localized fish species declines have occurred after strong ENSO events that result in shallow waters that are too warm and nutrient poor for extended periods of time (Grove 1985, Edgar et al. 2009). The frequency and duration of ENSO events in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (e.g. the up-welling zone off the coast of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Panama and the offshore islands) appears to be increasing (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004). Given this species' restricted distribution and shallow water habitat, oceanographic environmental changes, such as those associated with future ENSO events, may have detrimental effects on the survival of this species.
However, this species is found in deeper waters, and was observed to be common after at least one El Niño event in 1997-1998 (Robertson pers. comm.), so declines for this species may not be as severe as for other more shallow-water species.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures for any species on Clipperton Island.|
Chen, D., Cane, M.A., Kaplan, A., Zebiak, S.E and Huang, D. 2004. Predictability of El Niño over the past 148 years. Nature 428: 733-736.
Edgar, G.J., Banks, S.A., Brandt, M., Bustamante, R.H., Chiriboga, A., Earle, S.A., Garske, L.E., Glynn, P.W., Grove, J.S., Henderson, S., Hickman, C.P., Miller, K.A., Rivera, F. and Wellington, G.M. 2009. El Niño, grazers and fisheries interact to greatly elevate extinction risk for Galapagos marine species. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02117.x.
Glynn, P.W. and Ault, J.S. 2000. A biogeographic analysis and review of the far eastern Pacific coral reef region. Coral Reefs 19: 1-23.
Grove, J.S. 1985. Influence of the 1982-1983 El Niño event upon the ichthyofauna of the Galápagos archipelago. Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands, Quito, Ecuador.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
IUCN and UNEP. 2014. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Cambridge, UK Available at: www.wdpa.org .
Robertson, D.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Shore fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific: an information system. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá.
Soto, C.G. 2001. The potential impacts of global climate change on marine protected areas. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11(3): 181-195.
|Citation:||Smith-Vaniz, B, Robertson, R., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina, H., Salas, E. & Guzman-Mora, A.G. 2010. Pseudogramma axelrodi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 July 2014.|
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