|Scientific Name:||Prionailurus viverrinus|
|Species Authority:||(Bennett, 1833)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Placed in Prionailurus according to genetic analysis (Johnson et al. 2006, O'Brien and Johnson 2007, Eizirik et al. submitted ). No modern analysis of subspecies available.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2cd+4cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Mukherjee, S., Sanderson, J., Duckworth, W., Melisch, R., Khan, J., Wilting, A., Sunarto, S. & Howard, J.G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Nowell, K., Breitenmoser-Wursten, C., Breitenmoser, U., & Schipper, J.|
Fishing cats are widely distributed but concentrated primarily in wetland habitats, which are increasingly being settled, degraded and converted. Over 45% of protected wetlands and 94% of globally significant wetlands in Southeast Asia are considered threatened (Dugan 1993). Threats to wetlands include human settlement, draining for agriculture, pollution, and excessive hunting, wood-cutting and fishing. In addition, clearance of coastal mangroves over the past decade has been rapid. The depletion of fish stocks from over-fishing is prevalent and is likely to be a significant threat.
There appears to have been a severe decline in the fishing cat population throughout much of its Asian range over the last decade. While this period has seen a great increase in research effort, relatively few records of fishing cats have been obtained (Nekaris 2003, Duckworth et al. 2005). For example, recent research in Thailand aimed at studying fishing cats in wetland habitat have failed to find any animals in recent years, despite intensive camera trapping efforts (Cincinnati Zoo Fishing Cat Conservation project website; J Howard pers. comm. 2007). Fishing cats have disappeared from Bharatpur, India within the past five years, and may also have been lost from southwestern India and Pakistan. Based on continued range contraction, decline in habitat quality, and actual levels of exploitation of fish stocks and potential levels of incidental poisoning and snaring of fishing cats, a decline of at least 50% is suspected over the past 18 years (= three generations) , and if habitat protection efforts are not intensified, a future decline of similar magnitude over the next 18 years is projected (IUCN Cats Red List Workshop 2007).
|Range Description:||The Fishing Cat has a broad but discontinuous distribution in Asia, with large gaps - some the result of its association primarily with wetlands, some the result of recent extirpation, and some supposed due to a lack of confirmed records. In Pakistan, the only known population was in the Indus river valley (Roberts 1977), but there are no recent records to confirm it still occurs. The fishing cat has been extirpated in recent years from parts of India, including the Bharatpur region of western India (Shomita Mukherjee, Jamal Khan pers. comms. 2007), home to Keoladeo National Park, one of the few areas in India were fishing cats were studied (Mukerjee 1989, Haque and Vijayan 1993). It has possibly disappeared also from the southern Western Ghats (Nowell and Jackson 1996; Shomita Mukherjee and Jamal Khan pers. comms. 2007). However, there is also a new record from Umred, near Nagpur in central India, an area well outside of the fishing cat's known range, when a Fishing Cat that had been killed by a vehicle was found (Anon 2005). It is primarily found in the terai region of the Himalayan foothills, and eastern India into Bangladesh, where it is widely distributed and locally common in some areas (Khan 2004), although in eastern India few prime habitats remain (Kolipaka 2006). On the island of Sri Lanka, it occurs apparently all over the island, and has been found on waterways near the capital city of Colombo in degraded habitats (S. Mukherjee pers. comm. 2007).
In Southeast Asia, its distribution appears very patchy,with few recent records (Anak, W. Duckworth and R. Steinmetz, Southeast Asia mammal assessment, 2003). There are no confirmed records of the fishing cat from Peninsular Malaysia, but a 1999 camera trap image from Taman Negara National Park, an incomplete image showing only the animal's hindquarters, suggests the species occurrence here (Kawanishi and Sunquist 2003). However, the fishing cat never occurred on Taiwan, where it was mistakenly reported in the past (Nowell and Jackson, 1996; Sunquist and Sunquist, 2002). Its possible occurrence (based on an old, unsubstantiated record) in southwestern China is unknown (J. Sanderson pers. comm. 2007). On the island of Java, it has become scarce and apparently restricted to a few coastal wetlands (Melisch et al. 1996). Although commonly considered to occur on the island of Sumatra, there are no definite historic records, recent records have been shown to be erroneous, and its presence there remains to be confirmed (Duckworth et al. 2009).
The map shows range within forest cover (European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 2003) to reflect patchiness caused by deforestation upon recommendation of the assessors (IUCN Cats Red List workshop 2007).
Native:Bangladesh; Bhutan; Cambodia; India; Indonesia (Jawa); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Nepal; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is concern about the species status in Southeast Asia where it is very infrequently encountered and believed to be declining (Southeast Asia regional mammal assessment, 2003). There are very few records from camera trapping in Lao (Duckworth pers. comm. 2003) or Cambodia, although there are a sizeable number of confiscated live captive animals there (Duckworth et al. 2005). There have been declines in Thailand (Anak pers. comm. 2003) where it is very rarely encountered (Steinmetz pers. comm. 2003) and was more common in the past (Anak pers. comm. 2003). The fishing cat could not be confirmed in any reserves in Viet Nam during a survey of wildlife officers (Johnsingh and Nguyen 1995). In 2004, the Fishing Cat SSP and the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden funded a field survey by Thai biologists Namfon Boontua and Budsabong Kanchanasaka to locate fishing cats in prime wetland areas in southern Thailand. Four months of camera trapping failed to find any sign of fishing cats despite confirmed presence of numerous other wildlife species. There have also been big declines in Lao PDR (W. Duckworth pers. comm), as well as on the island of Java, where the population, possibly a valid subspecies Prionailurus viverrinus rizophoreus (Sody 1936), may qualify as Critically Endangered (Boeadi pers. comm.; Melisch et al. 1996). In India it has apparently been extirpated from large parts of its range in recent years (S. Mukherjee and J.A. Khan pers. comm. 2007), and it may no longer occur in Pakistan.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Fishing Cats are strongly associated with wetland. They are typically found in swamps and marshy areas, oxbow lakes, reed beds, tidal creeks and mangrove areas and are more scarce around smaller, fast-moving watercourses. Along watercourses they have been recorded at elevations up to 1,525 m, but most records are from lowland areas. Although fishing cats are widely distributed through a variety of habitat types (including both evergreen and tropical dry forest: Rabinowitz and Walker 1991), their occurrence tends to be highly localized (Nowell and Jackson 1996).
Fishing cats are good swimmers, and unlike most other small cats may prey primarily on fish rather than small mammals. A one-year study of scats in India's Keoladeo National Park found that fish comprised 76% of the diet, followed by birds (27%), insects (13%) and small rodents last (9%) (Haque and Vijayan 1993). Molluscs, reptiles and amphibians are also taken (Haque and Vijayan 1993, Mukherjee 1989). However, they are capable of taking large mammal prey, including small chital fawns (Nowell and Jackson 1996, Sunquist and Sunquist 2002), and have been seen scavenging livestock carcasses and tiger kills (Nowell and Jackson 1996). Predation on small domestic livestock and dogs has also been reported (Nowell and Jackson 1996).
The only radio-telemetry study took place in Nepal's Chitwan National Park in the early 1990s. Cats were active only at night and spent most of their time in dense tall and short grasslands, sometimes well away from water. Home ranges of three females were 4-6 km²; that of a single male was larger at 16-22 km² (JLD Smith pers comm. in Sunquist and Sunquist 2002).
Fishing cats have been observed in degraded habitats, such as near aquaculture ponds with little vegetation outside the Indian city of Calcutta (P. Sanyal in Anon. 1989).
|Major Threat(s):||Wetland destruction and degradation is the primary threat faced by the species (Nowell and Jackson 1996). Over 45% of protected wetlands and 94% of globally significant wetlands in Southeast Asia are considered threatened (Dugan 1993). Threats to wetlands include human settlement, draining for agriculture, pollution, and excessive hunting, wood-cutting and fishing. In addition, clearance of coastal mangroves over the past decade has been rapid in Tropical Asia. The depletion of fish stocks from over-fishing is prevalent in many Asian wetland environments and is likely to be a significant threat. While fishing cats appear relatively tolerant of modified habitats, they are also vulnerable to accidental snaring, while generally not being a commercially valued species (Nowell and Jackson 1996). Widespread indiscriminate snaring, trapping and poisoning are believed to underlie recent declines in Southeast Asia, where fishing cats have not been found even in seemingly intact wetland habitats (Southeast Asia regional mammal assessment, 2003). Kolipaka (2006) reported that fishermen have killed and eaten fishing cats which they say had taken fish from their nets. Wetlands are under-represented in the matrix of Asian protected areas (W. Duckworth pers. comm.). Fishing cat skins have been found in illegal trade in India for many years (Sunquist and Sunquist 2002, Anon 2005).|
Included on CITES Appendix II. Protected by national legislation over most of its range. Hunting prohibited: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand. Hunting regulations apply in Lao PDR. No protection outside protected areas: Bhutan, Viet Nam (Nowell and Jackson 1996). The Fishing Cat is confirmed to occur in protected areas including the Sundarbans (Bangladesh and India), Chitwan (Nepal), Corbett, Dudwha, and Kaziranga (India) (IUCN Cats Red List workshop 2007), Khao Sam Roi Yot and Thale Noi (Thailand: Cutter and Cutter 2009), Botum-Sakor (Cambodia: Royan 2009) and Ujung Kulon and Pulau Dua (Java, Indonesia: A. Compost in Duckworth et al. 2009).
Conservation of the species depends on adequate protection of remaining wild wetlands in Asia, and prevention of indiscriminate trapping, snaring and poisoning.
Anonymous. 1989. Cats around Calcutta. Cat News 11: 16.
Anonymous. 2005. Fishing cat found dead in central India. Cat News 43: 33.
Anonymous. 2005. Fishing cat poachers trapped. Cat News 43: 33.
Cutter, P., and Cutter, P. 2009. Recent sightings of fishing cats in Thailand. Cat News 51: 12-13.
Duckworth, J. W., Poole, C. M., Tizard, R. J., Walston, J. L. and Timmins, R. J. 2005. The Jungle Cat Felis chaus in Indochina: A threatened population of a widespread and adaptable species. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 1263-1280.
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Dugan, P. 1993. Wetlands in danger: conservation atlas. Mitchell Beazley and IUCN, London, UK.
Eizirik, E., Johnson, W. E. and O'Brien, S. J. Submitted. Molecular systematics and revised classification of the family Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora). Journal of Mammalogy.
European Commission, Joint Research Centre. 2003. Global Land Cover 2000 database.
Haque, N. M. and Vijayan, V. 1993. Food habits of the fishing cat Felis viverrina in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 90: 498-500.
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Johnsingh, A. J. T. and Nguyen Huu Dung. 1995. Conservation status of felids in Viet Nam. WII Newsletter 2(1): 6.
Johnson, W. E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W. J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E. and O'Brien, S. J. 2006. The late miocene radiation of modern felidae: A genetic assesstment. Science 311: 73-77.
Kawanishi, K. and Sunquist, M. 2003. Possible new records of fishing cat from Peninsular Malaysia. Cat News 39: 3-5.
Khan, M. M. H. 2004. Ecology and Conservation of the Bengal Tiger in the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest of Bangladesh. University of Cambridge, Department of Anatomy.
Kolipaka, S. 2006. Fishing cat on India's east coast. Cat News 44: 22.
Melisch, R., Asmoro, P. B., Lubis, I. R. and Kusumawardhani, L. 1996. Distribution and status of the Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus rhizophoreus Sody, 1936) in West Java, Indonesia (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae). Faunistische Abhandlungen,Staatiliches Museum fuer Tierkunde Dresden 20(17): 311.
Mukherjee, S. 1989. Ecological separation of four sympatric carnivores in Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. Thesis, Wildlife Institute of India.
Nekaris, K. A. I. 2003. Distribution and behaviour of three small wild cats in Sri Lanka. Cat News 38: 30-32.
Nowell, K. and Jackson, P. 1996. Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
O'Brien, S. J. and Johnson, W. E. 2007. The evolution of cats. Scientific American July: 68-75.
Rabinowitz, A. R. and Walker, S. K. 1991. The carnivore community in a dry tropical forest mosaic in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. Journal of Tropical Ecology 7: 37-47.
Roberts, T.J. 1977. The Mammals of Pakistan. Ernest Benn, London, UK.
Royan, A. 2009. Confirmation of the endangered fishing cat in Botum-Sakor National Park, Cambodia. Cat News 51: 10-11.
Sody, H. J. V. 1936. Seventeen new generic, specific , and subspecific names for Dutch Indian mammals. Natuur Kundig Tijidschriff voor Nederlandisch-Indie 96: 42-55.
Sunquist, M. and Sunquist, F. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press.
|Citation:||Mukherjee, S., Sanderson, J., Duckworth, W., Melisch, R., Khan, J., Wilting, A., Sunarto, S. & Howard, J.G. 2010. Prionailurus viverrinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 April 2015.|
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