|Scientific Name:||Prionailurus rubiginosus|
|Species Authority:||(I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1831)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Taxonomy is currently under review by the IUCN SSC Cat Specialist Group (2014). Placed in Prionailurus according to genetic analysis (Johnson et al. 2006, O'Brien and Johnson 2007).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Mukherjee, S., Duckworth, J.W., Silva, A., Appel, A. & Kittle, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Nowell, K., Hunter, L., Lanz, T., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C. & Breitenmoser, U.|
|Contributor(s):||Patel, K., Kadariya, R. & Chaudhary, R.|
The species is listed Near Threatened as it is very close to qualifying for Vulnerable under criterion A3c.
Since the last assessment additional information on the species is now available in the form of new location records (Patel 2006, Patel and Jackson 2005, Vyas et al. 2007, Behera 2008, Athreya 2010, Mukherjee et al. 2010, Jugal Tiwari in litt. 2013, Anonymous 2013, Ramjan Choudhary and Rabin Kadariya in litt. 2014, Mali and Srinivasulu 2015) that indicate a larger range than previously known.
A paucity of data on population estimates and the impact of land use changes on the species impedes a more confident assessment. Nevertheless, preliminary analysis on available data suggests that the species is negatively impacted by intensive irrigated agriculture that has fragmented its prime habitat and perhaps also its population in India (see Figure 1 in the Supplemental Material). The analysis also shows that prime habitat for this species occurs in three broad regions within the country, indicative of a fragmented population (Silva et al. 2015). These prime regions correspond with dry and moist deciduous forests showing relatively low forest fragmentation according to landuse and land cover maps for India (Roy et al. 2012). The absence of any earlier systematic survey makes it difficult to gauge if populations have declined, increased or are stable. However, a future prediction on population decline can be made based on available information on the geographical range of the species, niche model analysis and current change in land use regimes.
Most of the distributional range of the species in India and Nepal lies outside the protected area network and in the deciduous forests of central India which are severely disturbed. The total extent of prime habitat in India and Nepal is around 25% of the total distributional range within these countries.
The current (2015) Government of India has made provisions for speedy approval of developmental projects in non-protected areas including areas under mining, industrialisation and urbanisation (Mazoomdaar 2015 a,b). Moreover, there are plans for expanding the national area under agriculture by 10% by 2017 (Bhardwaj and Dutta 2014), a development which will continue in the future. Apart from agriculture and industry, parts of the Central Indian landscape within the range of the species are rapidly being converted for establishing solar plants as an alternative source of generating energy since the past few years (Sharma 2015). Since the climate summit of 2015, this is bound to increase given India’s strong commitment to reduce its carbon footprint. The impact of this development on persistence of biodiversity remains unclear.
Assuming 10 years as the average life span of the Rusty-spotted Cat in the wild and the Age at First Reproduction (AFR) around 1 year, we estimate the average age of mature individuals (Generation Length - GL) in the current population at around 4 years, using the formula by Pacifici et al. (2013): GL = AFR + [z *Rspan], where z (slope) is estimated at 0.3, Rspan (Age at Last Reproduction – AFR). In the next three Rusty-spotted Cat generations, i.e. 12 years, the prime locations where populations are likely to persist are protected areas as these are the only zones remaining close to intact. This translates to 75% of habitat in the current distributional range facing an imminent danger of being converted. As much of this is marginal habitat for the species, a 75% loss of habitat could translate to a decline of around 20-25% (assuming 70-80% of the population resides in prime habitat and a relatively direct relationship between loss of habitat and loss of mature individuals) of the current population over the next three generations. Given the much smaller landmass of Sri Lanka, the mainland population constitutes perhaps 90% or a little more of the global population and therefore has a concomitantly greater contribution to the overall ‘average’ global change.
Therefore, a future decline of 20-25% over the next three generations is suspected, occurring primarily due to projected habitat loss in central India, with populations stable only in protected areas and little information available about the small proportion of the population found in Sri Lanka.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The Rusty-spotted Cat was earlier believed to be restricted to India and Sri Lanka but recent photographic records show its presence in Bardia National Park, Nepal (Ramjan Choudhary and Rabin Kadariya in litt. 2014), bordering India. Its geographical distribution is as yet not clearly documented but recent locality records suggest it is more widespread than earlier believed (Chakraborty 1978, Phillips 1984, Wright 1984, Miththapala 2006, Athreya 2010, Mukherjee et al. 2010, Anwar et al. 2012, Raza Kazmi in litt. 2012, Jugal Tiwari in litt. 2013, Anonymous 2013, Dharmendra Khandal in litt. 2013, Pankaj Koparde and Gaurang Gowande in litt. 2013, Ramjan Choudhary and Rabin Kadariya in litt. 2014, Andrew Kittle in litt. 2014). Nevertheless it has a relatively restricted global distribution for a cat and little is known of its ecology or local abundance (Nowell and Jackson 1996, Sunquist and Sunquist 2002). Within India the distribution of this species is similar to, though far more restricted than, the Jungle Cat Felis chaus (Mukherjee and Koparde in prep.).|
Native:India (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Jammu-Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh); Nepal; Sri Lanka
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Information on this species is not just meagre but also incidental and hence it is difficult to infer, with confidence, its population size, connectivity between populations, threats, and persistence in the future. It appears to be rare almost wherever it occurs (Kunal Patel and Andrew Kittle in litt. 2014). |
Population trend: the absence of any earlier systematic survey makes it difficult to gauge if populations have declined, increased or are stable. However, the niche model from India (Figure 1 in Supplementary Material) suggests a fragmented population. The analysis also shows that prime habitat for this species occurs in three broad regions within the country (Silva et al. 2015). These prime regions correspond with dry and moist deciduous forests showing relatively low forest fragmentation according to landuse and land cover maps for India (Roy et al. 2012).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Though the species is also found in proximity to human habitation (Worah 1991, Nowell and Jackson 1996, Mukherjee 1998, Nekaris 2003), preliminary results of a study using niche models and known Rusty-spotted Cat locations within India (Figure 1 in Supplementary Material), suggests that at a broad scale this cat’s distribution is limited by large contiguous tracts of hostile habitat, specifically intensive, irrigated agriculture (Silva et al. 2015). These results were a consensus of four models that incorporated land cover, bioclimatic variables and disturbance measures with 61 location points of the species. The analysis also shows that prime habitat for this species occurs in three broad regions within the country, indicative of a fragmented population (Silva et al. 2015). These prime regions correspond with dry and moist deciduous forests showing relatively low forest fragmentation according to landuse and land cover maps for India (Roy et al. 2012). |
There are recent records of the Rusty-spotted Cat from the Central Highlands of Sri Lanka in small, mostly isolated forest patches (<5 km²) interspersed with tea estates but it is not known if the species occurs in or uses the tea plantation areas (Andrew Kittle in litt. 2016).
A few observations suggest that the species preys on rodents (Kunal Patel and Vidya Athreya in litt.).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||4|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
Habitat loss and the spread of cultivation are serious problems for wildlife in South Asia. The total extent of prime habitat of the Rusty-spotted Cat in India and Nepal is equivalent to around 25% of the range of the species in these countries. These are perhaps the only areas where populations of the species are likely to persist in the future. This translates to 75% of the current habitat in India and Nepal facing an imminent danger of conversion to urban areas, industry, mining and other forms of land use hostile to Rusty-spotted Cat (Bhardwaj and Dutta 2014, Mazoomdaar 2015 a,b). Apart from agriculture and industry, parts of the Central Indian landscape within the range of the species is rapidly being converted for establishing solar plants as an alternative source of generating energy during the past few years (Sharma 2015). Since the climate summit of 2015, this is bound to increase given India’s strong commitment to reduce its carbon footprint. Categorization of certain portions of the species’s habitat (scrub, degraded forest) as wasteland facilitates such conversion (Mukherjee and Koparde in prep.).
As much of the distributional range constitutes marginal habitat for the species, this 75% loss of habitat could translate to a decline of around 20-25% (assuming 70-80% of the population resides in prime habitat and a relatively direct relationship between loss of habitat and loss of mature individuals) of the current population over three generations. Given the much smaller landmass of Sri Lanka, the mainland population constitutes perhaps 90% or a little more of the global population
Since much of the species’s range is within hugely human-dominated areas undergoing rapid land use change, fragmentation of habitat and disease should be considered as serious threats. There are concerns regarding possible hybridization of Rusty-spotted Cat with domestic cats (Kittle and Watson 2004) but these have yet to be substantiated and measured to determine if this factor is indeed a threat to the species. There is a belief that Rusty-spotted Cats do not get into conflict, unlike Jungle Cats, since they are believed not to prey on poultry (Manakadan and Sivakumar 2006). However, this needs to be backed by research and the threats need to be evaluated across the species’s global distribution.
Reflecting the uncertainty of this assessment, the species should be prioritised for research and monitoring.
The Indian population is included on CITES Appendix I, while the Sri Lanka and Nepal populations are included on CITES Appendix II. The species is fully protected over most of its range, with hunting and trade banned in India and Sri Lanka, although domestic trade was largely uncontrolled in Sri Lanka 20 years ago (Nowell and Jackson 1996); no more recent information has been traced. The occurrence of the species in Nepal has only very recently been documented and perhaps it does not figure specifically in conservation laws of the country. It occurs in a number of protected areas, including Yala National Park in Sri Lanka (Nekaris 2003, Kittle and Watson 2004), Wilpattu National Park, Sri Lanka (Andrew Kittle in litt. 2016), the Gir National Park (Pathank 1990), Sariska Tiger Reserve (Mukherjee 1998), Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve (Dharmendra Khandal in litt.), Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve and Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve (Dubey 1999) among many others, in India.
Reflecting the uncertainty of this assessment, the species should be prioritised for research and monitoring, in particular to clarify which of the various potential threats truly are problematic.
Anonymous. 2013. In a first, Rusty Spotted Cat sighted in Kutch. Ahmedabad Available at: http://www.dnaindia.com/ahmedabad/report-in-a-first-rusty-spotted-cat-sighted-in-kutch-1821719.
Anwar M, Hasan D, Vattakavan J. 2012. Rusty-spotted cat in Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh State, India. Cat News 56: 12-13.
Athreya, V. 2010. Rusty-spotted cat more common than we think? Cat News 53: 27.
Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. and Amarasinghe, S. 2001. Wild cats in Sri Lanka. Cat News 35: 18-18.
Behera, S. 2008. Rustyspotted Cat in Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve. Cat News 48: 19.
Bhardwaj, M. and Dutta, R. 2014. India to expand irrigation to cut reliance on monsoon. New Delhi Available at: http://in.reuters.com/article/india-monsoon-idINKBN0D001S20140414.
Chakraborty, S. 1978. The rusty-spotted cat, Felis rubiginosa I. Geoffroy, in Jammu and Kashmir. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 75: 478.
Deraniyagala, P.E.P. 1956. A new subspecies of rusty spotted cat from Ceylon. Spoila Zeylanica 28: 113.
Dubey, Y. 1999. Sighting of rustyspotted Cat in Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, Maharashtra. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 96(2): 310.
Eizirik, E., Johnson, W.E. and O'Brien, S.J. Submitted. Molecular systematics and revised classification of the family Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora). Journal of Mammalogy. [see http://dobzhanskycenter.bio.spbu.ru/pdf/sjop/MS636%20Eizirik%20Felid%20Taxonomy.pdf]
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Johnson, W.E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W.J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E. and O'Brien, S.J. 2006. The late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment. Science 311: 73-77.
Kittle, A.M. and Watson, A.C. 2004. Rusty-spotted cat in Sri Lanka: observations of an arid zone population. Cat News 40: 17-19.
Mali, S. and Srinivasulu, C. 2015. Records of Rusty Spotted Cat, Sri Lankamalleshwara Wildlife Sanctuary India. Cat News 62: 20-21.
Manakadan, R. and Sivakumar, S. 2006. Rusty-spotted cat on India's east coast. Cat News 45: 26.
Mazoomdaar, J. 2015a. Don’t say ‘diversion’ of forest land, say ‘reforestation’, says Prakash Javadekar. The Indian Express 29th July 2015.
Mazoomdaar, J. 2015b. Will try (to conserve) but can’t allow something crazy, says Prakash Javadekar. The Indian Express 3rd August 2015.
Miththapala, S. 2006. The ecology of the wild cats of Sri Lanka. . In: C.N.B Bambaradeniya (ed.), The Fauna of Sri Lanka,, pp. 235-256. The World Conservation Union (IUCN), Colombo.
Mukherjee, S. 1998. Small Cats of India. Envis Bulletin. Wildlife Institute of India.
Mukherjee, S. and Koparde, P. In prep. An analysis of the felid assemblage in India with implications for conservation..
Mukherjee, S., Ashalakshmi, C.N., Home, C. and Ramakrishnan, U. 2010. A PCR-RFLP technique to identify Indian felids and canids from scats. BMC Research Notes, (doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-159)..
Nekaris, K.A.I. 2003. Distribution and behaviour of three small wild cats in Sri Lanka. Cat News 38: 30-32.
Nowell, K. and Jackson, P. 1996. Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
O'Brien, S.J. and Johnson, W.E. 2007. The evolution of cats. Scientific American July: 68-75.
Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.
Patel, K. 2006. Observations of rusty-spotted cat in eastern Gujurat. Cat News 45: 27-28.
Patel, K. and Jackson, P. 2005. Rusty-spotted cat in India: new distribution data. Cat News 42: 27.
Pathak, B.J. 1990. Rusty spotted cat Felis rubiginosa Geoffroy: A new record for Gir Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 87: 8.
Phillips, W.W.A. 1984. of the mammals of Sri Lanka 2nd Ed. Colombo: Wildlife Nature Protection Society.
Roy, P.S., Kushwaha, S.P.S., Murthy, M.S.R., Roy, A., Kushwaha, D., Reddy, C.S., Behera, M.D., Mathur, V.B., Padalia, H., Saran, S., Singh, S., Jha, C.S. and Porwal, M.C. 2012. Biodiversity characterisation at landscape level: National assessment. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun, India.
Sharma, S. 2015. India crosses 5GW in solar power capacity: Bridge to India. Livemint.
Silva, A.P., Björklund, M., Fernandes, C. and Mukherjee, S. 2015. Mapping the occurrence of small cats in India: co-occurrence in Prinonailurus spp. pg 167. In: G. Daniel, C. Beierkuhnlein, S. Holzheu, B. Thies, K. Faller, R. Gillespie and J. Hortal (eds), International Biogeography Society – 7th Biennial Meeting 6: 167. Bayreuth, Germany. Available from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/5kk8703h.
Sunquist, M. and Sunquist, F. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press.
Vyas, V.R., Lakhmapurkar, J.J. and Gavali, D. 2007. Sighting of rusty-spotted cat from new localities in central Gujurat. Cat News 46: 18.
Worah, S. 1991. The ecology and management of a fragmented forest in south Gujurat, India: the Dangs. Thesis, University of Pune.
Wright, A. 1984. A Note on the Wild Cats of the North Eastern Region of India. In: P. Jackson (ed.), Cat Specialist Group meeting in Kanha National Park, pp. 80-83. Kanha National Park India.
|Citation:||Mukherjee, S., Duckworth, J.W., Silva, A., Appel, A. & Kittle, A. 2016. Prionailurus rubiginosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T18149A50662471.Downloaded on 27 October 2016.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|