|Scientific Name:||Mora oleifera|
|Species Authority:||(Triana ex Hemsl.) Ducke|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C1 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species has a resticted range in the Eastern Pacific, and lives in large river estuaries where it is highly suseptible to development and clearing for agriculture. As this species is found in stands, it is estimated that there are less than 10,000 mature individuals remaining within its range. Additionally, there has been at least a 26% decline in mangrove area over the past 25 years in countries within this species range in the Eastern Pacific. This species is experiencing continued decline in population due to development and extraction. This species is listed as Vulnerable under Criterion C. Decline over a period of three generation lengths (120 years) is likely to be much higher, however little data exists for this time period. There is known continuing decline from altered land use and exploitation, and with more historical data, this species may qualify for a higher threat category under Criterion A.
|Range Description:||This species is present in the Eastern Pacific along the coasts of Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and northern Ecuador.|
Native:Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; Panama
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This is a very uncommon species as it is only found in large estuaries in the upstream area (Duke et al. 1998). This species is only present in four estuaries in Panama (approximately 100 trees in each). It is estimated that there are less than 10,000 mature individuals within its global range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in the upstream estuarine zone in the high intertidal region. These are large trees with large butresses and generally grow in monotypic stands.|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Use and Trade:||It is not known if this species is specifically used.|
This species lives in areas that are subject to extensive land use change, especially due to catchment clearing for intensive agriculture. There has been at least a 26% decline in mangrove area in countries within this species range over the past 25 years (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. Howevever, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas.|
Duke, N. C., Ball, M.C. and Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 27-47.
Duke, N., Meynecke, J-O, Dittmann, S., Ellison, A.M., Anger, K., Berger, U., Cannicci, S., Diele, K., Ewel, K.C., Field, C.D., Koedam, N., Lee, S.Y., Marchand, C., Nordhaus, I., Dahdough-Guebas, F. 2007. A world without mangroves. Science 317: 41-42.
Ellison, J.C. 2005. Holocene palynology and sea-level change in two estuaries in Southern Irian Jaya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220: 291-309.
FAO. 2007. The World's Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
Jimenez, Q. 1999. Especies de Costa Rica: Mora oleifera (Triana) Ducke. Available at: http://darnis.inbio.ac.cr/FMPro?-DB=UBIpub.fp3&-lay=WebAll&-Format=/ubi/detail.html&-Op=bw&id=2143&-Find. (Accessed: 09/08/07).
Rivas, F., Alarcon, A., Espinosa, C., Carrillo, F. and Villamarin, D. 2005. Geobotánica del Ecuador, Areas protegidas. Facultad de Ciencias Aplicadas, Escuela de Ingeniería en Biotecnología.
Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. 1992. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.
|Citation:||Duke, N. 2010. Mora oleifera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 January 2015.|
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