|Scientific Name:||Kandelia candel|
|Species Authority:||(L.) Druce|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species original range has been divided in K. candel and K. obovata (Sheue et al. 2003).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T.|
|Reviewer/s:||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is widespread and common in at least part of its range, however it is more rare and more threatened at the extremities of its range. It is threatened by the loss of mangrove habitat throughout its range, primarily due to extraction and coastal development, and there has been an estimated 23% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. Although there are overall range declines in many areas, they are not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is very widespread and is found in India (western coast, Andaman Islands, Orissa and Sundarband), Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, south Viet Nam, and in Indonesia (northern Sumatra, Sarawak, Halamahira, Molluccas).|
Native:Bangladesh; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common within its range, but becomes more rare at the extremities of its range. In Sumatra for example, it is considered rare. In India, this species was found in 36% of 100 sampling sites, and is considered to be rare in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands (Kathiresan 2008). This species is common along the western coast and in Orissa and Sundaband off the eastern coast.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in the downstream estuarine zone in the lower intertidal region (Robertson and Alongi 1992). It is found on soft mud along in inland river banks associated with Aegiceras corniculatum, and as gregarious undergrowth on the same habitat (Peng and Xin-men 1983).This species has a lower capacity for regeneration, but coppices and is considered a hardy species. Kandelia candel is a small stilt-rooted or buttressed tree to 4-8 m tall with its base fluted or swollen.|
Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 23% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. In India, this species is planted. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas.|
Duke, N.C., Ball, M.C. and Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 27-47.
Ellison, J.C. 2005. Holocene palynology and sea-level change in two estuaries in Southern Irian Jaya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220: 291-309.
FAO. 2007. The World's Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
Kathiresan, K. 2008. Biodiversity of Mangrove Ecosystems. Proceedings of Mangrove Workshop. GEER Foundation, Gujarat, India.
Peng, L. and Xin-men, W. 1983. Ecological notes on the mangroves of Fujian, China. In: H.J. Teas (ed.), Biology and Ecology of Mangroves, pp. 31-36. Dr W. Junk Publishers, Boston.
Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. 1992. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Sheue, C.-R., Liu, H.-Y. and Yong, J.W.H. 2003. Kandelia obovata (Rhizophoraceae), a new mangrove species from Eastern Asia. Taxon 52(2): 287.
Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.
Tam, N.F.Y., Wong, T.W.Y. and Wong, Y.S. 2005. A case study on fuel oil contamination in a mangrove swamp in Hong Kong. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51: 1092-1100.
Ye, Y., Tam, N.F.Y., Wong, Y.S. and Lu, C.Y. 2004. Does sea level rise influence propagule establishment, early growth and physiology of Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 306: 197-215.
|Citation:||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T. 2010. Kandelia candel. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 December 2013.|
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