|Scientific Name:||Aegiceras floridum|
|Species Authority:||Roem. & Schult.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species has a restricted distribution, and is uncommon. There has been an estimated 29% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. It has a very a narrow range of appropriate habitat as it requires very high salinity. It is listed as Near Threatened.
|Range Description:||The distribution of this species is limited to high salinity areas in the Philippines, Indonesia, Sabah (east Malaysia), and south Viet Nam.|
Native:Indonesia; Malaysia; Philippines; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is uncommon throughout its range. Although there is no species specific population information, it can be assumed that there are areas of population decline throughout its range due to coastal development.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in rocky and sandy substrates, and along beaches. It lives in high salinity areas and has a very narrow habitat range. It is a small tree and can be gregarious.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is harvested as a fuelwood and for construction purposes.|
Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 29% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas.|
Duke, N. 2006. Australia's Mangroves. The authoritative guide to Australia's mangrove plants. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Duke, N. C., Ball, M.C. and Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 27-47.
Ellison, J.C. 2005. Holocene palynology and sea-level change in two estuaries in Southern Irian Jaya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220: 291-309.
FAO. 2007. The World's Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.
|Citation:||Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Aegiceras floridum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.|
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