|Scientific Name:||Brownlowia argentata|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is thought to occur in southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea, but its distribution is poorly known. More research is needed on this species distribution, population, habitat requirements and basic botany. It is listed as Data Deficient.
|Range Description:||The distribution of this species is not well known. It is likely present in Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and most of Indonesia (except Java, Sumatra and the lesser Sunda Islands) (Giesen, 2007). There are records from Medan, Sumatra from the 1990s where this species was considered locally common. This species is thought to have been previously present in Singapore.|
Native:Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Thailand
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species used to be common, but the population has not been well studied. The population trend of this species is unknown. It is likely extinct in Singapore.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is poorly known. It grows on the landward margin of mangrove habitat, in riverine areas. It grows to approximately 10 m.|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
This species is found primarily on terra firma, on the landward margin, and therefore it is more threatened by human activities and coastal development than other more seaward mangrove species. Sea level rise is a major threat, especially to back mangroves that have no area in which to expand. Mangrove species with a habitat on the landward margin may be particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise if owing to coastal development their movement inland is blocked. Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 26% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||This species is not known to occur in any protected areas. More research is need on this species distribution, population, basic botany, habitat requirements, and threats.|
Duke, N. C., Ball, M.C. and Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 27-47.
Ellison, J.C. 2005. Holocene palynology and sea-level change in two estuaries in Southern Irian Jaya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220: 291-309.
Giesen, W., Wulffraat, M.Z. and Scholteb, L. 2007 Southeast Asia. Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia. Dharmasarn Co. Ltd.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
Kostermans, A.J.G.J. 1961. A monograph of the genus Brownlowia Roxb. (Tiliaceae). Comm. For.Res.Inst. Bogor, Indonesia: 1-33.
|Citation:||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Brownlowia argentata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 April 2015.|
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