|Scientific Name:||Pemphis acidula|
|Species Authority:||J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is a robust species, and is widespread and common in some regions. The main threat to this species is collection for use in the ornamental bonsai trade. There has been an estimated 21% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. Additionally, mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. Although there are overall range declines in many areas, they are not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||In South Asia, this species is found in Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Viet Nam, and Thailand. In Australasia, it is found in Northwest Australia, Northeast Australia, Papua New Guinea, Sololmon Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Guam, New Caledonia, and Palau. It is also found in the Pacific Islands, from the Marshall Islands to at least as far as Tonga in the east Pacific. In East Africa, this species is found in British Indian Ocean Territory, Maldives, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zanzibar, and Seychelles.|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kiribati; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; New Caledonia; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This is a common species in certain areas, and it is widespread. In the Pacific Islands, the population is considered stable. However, this species has experienced population declines in some regions due to habitat loss and the collection for use in the bonsai trade.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species lives in calcarious rocky and sandy beaches high in the intertidal zone, and often above the high tide line. This species is beneficial for shoreline protection against high wind. It is a very sturdy and resilient plant, however, it will not grow anywhere other than the appropriate habitat type.|
|Generation Length (years):||40|
|Use and Trade:||Collection for trade as bonsai ornaments is a local threat to this species. It is also collected for fuelwood or construction purposes in some areas.|
Collection for trade as bonsai ornaments is a local threat to this species. Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 21% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas.Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas. Recommended conservation measures include establishing a system to control the ornamental plant industry and regulating the removal of wild individuals.|
Bell, A.M. and Duke, N.C. 2005. Effects of Photosystem II inhibiting herbicides on mangroves - preliminary toxicology trials. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51: 297-307.
Duke, N. 2006. Australia's Mangroves. The authoritative guide to Australia's mangrove plants. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Duke, N.C., Ball, M.C. and Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 27-47.
Ellison, J.C. 2005. Holocene palynology and sea-level change in two estuaries in Southern Irian Jaya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220: 291-309.
FAO. 2007. The World's Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
Hughes, R.H. and Hughes, J.S. 1992. A Directory of African Wetlands. pp. 820. IUCN - World Conservation Union, United Nations Environment Programme and World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
Li, M.S. and Lee, S.Y. 1997. Mangroves of China: a brief review. Forest Ecology and Management 96: 241-259.
McCormack, G. 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Rarotonga Available at: http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org. (Accessed: 04/08/2007).
Rajendran, N. and Kathiresan, K. 1996. Effect of effluent from a shrimp pond on shoot biomass of mangrove seedlings. Aquaculture Research 27: 745-747.
Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. 1992. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Seaton, A.J., Beaver, K. and Afif, M. 1991. Conserving the Environment, No. 3: A Focus on Aldabra. Ministry of Education, Republic of Seychelles.
Selvam, V. 2003. Environmental classification of mangrove wetlands of India. Current Science 84(6): 757-765.
Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.
UNEP-SCS. 2004. Trat Province Demonstration Site Summary Sheet. UNEP - South China Sea, Trat Province, Thailand.
|Citation:||Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Pemphis acidula. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T178838A7622565.Downloaded on 23 June 2017.|