|Scientific Name:||Avicennia marina|
|Species Authority:||(Forsk.) Vierh.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is widespread and common thoughout its range. It is a fast growing and fast regenerating, hardy species. It is threatened by the loss of mangrove habitat throughout its range, primarily due to extraction and coastal development, and there has been an estimated 21% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. Although there are overall range declines in many areas, they are not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||In South Asia this species is found in Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. In Australasia it is found in Southwest Australia, Northwest Australia, Northeast Australia, Southeast Australia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu. The species also occurs in Guam and Micronesia.
It can be found in East Africa and the Middle East including Bahrain, Djbouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Maldives, Mozambique, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
Native:Australia; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Comoros; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Guam; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Japan; Kenya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Mayotte; Mozambique; Myanmar; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; United Arab Emirates; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This is a very common, widespread species.
A species specific dieback was observed in Queensland affecting 30 km² of mangrove in five separate estuaries. The dieback began in 1998 and was observed by Duke et al. (2005) during surveys taken between 2000 and 2002. Apparent causes include high concentrations of the herbicide diuron and excessive nutrients, which may have facilitated the uptake of toxic compounds (Duke et al. 2005). Between 1980 and 2000 there was a 16% loss in the region (Duke et al. 2007). Overall, there is an average of 0.8% habitat decline per year within the distribution of this species (Duke et al. 2007).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Avicennia marina is a shrub to medium sized tree, 2-5 m tall (Peng and Xin-men 1983). This species is found from downstream to intermediate estuarine zones in all intertidal regions (Robertson and Alongi 1992). It is found at the mouth of rivers or in lower tidal areas (Peng and Xin-men 1983). It is shade intolerant with a maximum porewater salinity of 85 ppt. Optimal growth occurs at a salinity of 0-30 ppt (Robertson and Alongi 1992).
This is a pioneer species on newly formed habitats of mud with a high proportion of sand, but does not seem to grow on pure mud (Peng and Xin-men 1983). It is a hardy species in natural conditions and regenerates quickly from coppices, both as individuals and as a species. It is a colonizing species on newly formed mudflats in SE Asia (Terrados et al. 1997), and has a high tolerance to hypersaline conditions.
|Use and Trade:||This species is used for food, fodder, fuelwood, construction materials and medicine in some areas within its range.|
This species is highly sensitive to herbicides (N. Duke pers. comm.). Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 21% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||This species range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Conservation measures for this species include planting, management for sustainable use, and legal protection in some areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas.|
Bell, A.M. and Duke, N.C. 2005. Effects of Photosystem II inhibiting herbicides on mangroves - preliminary toxicology trials. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51: 297-307.
Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Mathenge, C., Kairo, J.G., and Koedam, N. 2000. Utilization of mangrove wood products around Mida Creek (Kenya) amongst subsistence and commercial users. Economic Botany 54(4): 513-527.
Duke, N. 2006. Australia's Mangroves. The authoritative guide to Australia's mangrove plants. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Duke, N.C., Ball, M.C. and Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 27-47.
Duke, N.C., Bell, A.M., Pederson, D.K., Roelfsema, C.M. and Nash, S.B. 2005. Herbicides implicated as the cause of severe mangrove dieback in the Mackay region, NE Australia: consequences for marine plant habitats of the GBR World Heritage Area. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51: 308-324.
Duke, N., Meynecke, J-O, Dittmann, S., Ellison, A.M., Anger, K., Berger, U., Cannicci, S., Diele, K., Ewel, K.C., Field, C.D., Koedam, N., Lee, S.Y., Marchand, C., Nordhaus, I., Dahdough-Guebas, F. 2007. A world without mangroves. Science 317: 41-42.
Ellison, J.C. 2005. Holocene palynology and sea-level change in two estuaries in Southern Irian Jaya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220: 291-309.
Fahmy, A.G. and Boer, B. 2002. Flora and Phtogeographical Aspects of the Red Sea Sabkhat in Egypt. In: H.-J. Barth and B. Boer (eds), Sabkha Ecosystems. Vol 1: The Arabian Peninsula and Adjacent Countries, pp. 161-169. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netheralands.
FAO. 2007. The World's Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
Hughes, R.H. and Hughes, J.S. 1992. A Directory of African Wetlands. pp. 820. IUCN - World Conservation Union, United Nations Environment Programme and World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
Lacerda, L.D. 2002. Mangrove Ecosystems: Function and Management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
Laroche, J., Baran, E. and Rasoanandrasana, N.B. 1997. Temporal patterns in a fish assemblage of a semiarid mangrove zone in Madagascar. Journal of Fish Biology 51(1): 3-20.
Peng, L. and Xin-men, W. 1983. Ecological notes on the mangroves of Fujian, China. In: H.J. Teas (ed.), Biology and Ecology of Mangroves, pp. 31-36. Dr W. Junk Publishers, Boston.
Rajendran, N. and Kathiresan, K. 1996. Effect of effluent from a shrimp pond on shoot biomass of mangrove seedlings. Aquaculture Research 27: 745-747.
Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. 1992. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.
Terrados, J., Thampanya, U., Srichai, N., Kheowvongstri, P., Geertz-Hansen, O., Boromthanarath, S., Panapitukkul, N. and Duarte, C.M. 1997. The effect of increased sediment accretion on the survival and growth of Rhizophora apiculata seedlings. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 45: 697-701.
Tomlinson, P.B. 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Wells, A.G. 1983. Distribution of mangroves species in Australia. In: H.J. Teas (ed.), Biology and Ecology of Mangroves, pp. 57-76. Dr W. Junk Publishers, Boston.
|Citation:||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Avicennia marina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 August 2014.|
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