|Scientific Name:||Avicennia schaueriana|
|Species Authority:||Stapf & Leechman ex Moldenke|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species is differentiated from A. germinans by cuticular waxes and AFLPs (see Dodd and Rafii 2002). It is a sister to A. bicolor (a Central American Pacific coast endemic).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Ellison, A., Farnsworth, E. & Moore, G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
The majority of this species population is found in Brazil, encompassing over 90% of the documented occurrences. Since 1980, Brazil is estimated to have lost only 5% of its mangrove cover. It is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species has a discontinuous distribution as it is found from the lower Lesser Antilles and the Atlantic coast of northern South America from Guyana south to Suriname. It is absent from French Guiana (Dodd and Rafii 2002). However, Brazil contains over 90% of the estimated areal extent of this species (Wilkie and Fortuna 2003).|
Native:Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Barbados; Brazil; Dominica; France; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guyana; Martinique; Montserrat; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Although there is no species specific population information, there are areas of significant population decline throughout its range.
Genetic studies of Avicennia are numerous as microsatellite loci, RAPDs, and AFLPs have been developed for this species (Ceron-Souza et al. 2006). Eastern and western Atlantic provenances of Avicennia show significant genetic differentiation, as indicated by leaf chemistry (Dodd and Bousquet-Melou 2000). Studies to date show well-defined genetic structure differentiating western Atlantic from Pacific populations across the isthmus of Panama (Dodd et al. 2002) and among populations sharing a coastline (Ceron-Souza et al. 2005).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species typically grows in the intertidal regions of sheltered tropical and subtropical coasts (Saenger 2002). It is a small tree, 15-20 m in size. There are no data on age and size of maturity. This species is very tolerant of high salinity and of cold (Tomlinson 1995).
In Northern Brazil, mangrove swamps dominated by A. schaueriana provide critical habitat for the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. This crab is collected both for subsistence use and for regional/national markets. In some areas of northern Brazil, community-based initiatives are effectively managing the crab harvest and the mangrove forests. However, in other areas, the crabs are overharvested and the mangroves are being cut relatively rapidly, further reducing habitat for the crabs (Diele et al. 2005, Glaser and Diele 2004).
|Use and Trade:||This species is primarily harvested for fuelwood and construction materials. The "Existence value" of Itaipu Lagoon, a mangrove lagoon of 10,000 ha in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ranges from US$2.2 (willingness to pay) to U.S.$7.9 Million (willingness to work) (Fonseca & Drummond 2003).|
In Brazil this species is threatened by aquaculture development, human settlement and water pollution (Barth et al. 2006; Pagliosa 2004. But Brazil has only lost an estimated 5% of its mangrove area since 1980 (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/ ast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas.
Research is needed to establish a minimum viable population size for the taxon. Demographic modeling could also be useful. Research on exploitation and impacts of harvesting on populations is needed. More cost/benefit analyses of mangrove conversion, particularly in Brazil, are critical because the mangrove crab (Ucides cordatus) is extensively harvested from intact mangroves for subsistence and regional markets.
New Landsat and IKONOS technology can and should be used to conduct species-based, landscape-level monitoring of deforestation (Kovacs et al. 2005). More research is needed to document Avicennia's influences on water quality, erosion control and pollution buffering. All conservation of Avicennia (indeed, any mangrove species) needs to be undertaken at the habitat level.
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Barth, O.M., São-Thiago, L.E.U. and Barros, M.A. 2006. Paleoenvironment interpretation of a 1760 years B.P. old sediment in a mangrove area of the Bay of Guanabara, using pollen analysis. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences 78: 227-229.
Camargo, L., Pellerin, J. and Panitz, C.M.N. 2004. Derivation and application of algorism of 5 meters (image mask) for mangrove classification. Gayana (Concepción) 68(Supplement, t.I. Proc): 77-82.
Ceron-Souza, I., Toro-Perea, N., and Cardenas-Henao, H. 2005. Population genetic structure of neotropical mangrove species on the Colombian Pacific coast: Avicennia germinans (Avicenniaceae). Biotropica 37: 258-265.
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Diele, K., Koch, V. and Saint-Paul, U. 2005. Population structure, catch composition and CPUE of the artisanally harvested mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae) in the Caete estuary, North Brazil: Indications for overfishing? Aquatic Living Resources 18(2): 169-178.
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Duke, N.C., Pinzon, Z.S. and Prada, M.C.T. 1997. Large-scale damage to mangrove forests following two large oil spills in Panama. Biotropica 29(1): 2-14.
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Fonseca, S.M. and Drummond, J.A. 2003. O valor de existência de um ecossistema costeiro tropical através da disposição ao trabalho voluntário: o caso da lagoa de Itaipu (Niterói, RJ). (The existence value of a tropical coastal ecosystem through predisposition to voluntary work (in Portuguese). Ambiente y Sociedade 5(2)/6(1).
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McCoy, E.D., Mushinsky, H.R., Johnson, D. and Meshaka, W.E. 1996. Mangrove damage cause by Hurricane Andrew on the southwestern coast of Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science 59: 1-8.
Pagliosa, P.A. 2004. The impact of urbanization on biosphere reserves: a comparative study of protected and non-protected coastal areas. Final Report to UNESCO-MAB.
Saenger, P. 2002. Mangrove ecology, silviculture and conservation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Schaeffer-Novelli, Y., Cintrón-Molero, G., Adaime, R.R., de Camargo, T.M. 1990. Variability of mangrove ecosystems along the Brazilian coast. Estuaries 13: 204-218.
Smith, G.M., Spencer, T., Murray, A.L. and French, J.R. 1998. Assessing seasonal vegetation change in coastal wetlands with airborne remote sensing: an outline methodology. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 2: 15-28.
Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.
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|Citation:||Ellison, A., Farnsworth, E. & Moore, G. 2010. Avicennia schaueriana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 October 2014.|
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