|Scientific Name:||Ceriops tagal|
|Species Authority:||(Perr) CB.Rob.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is widespread and common. It is highly utilized and is threatened by habitat loss throughout its range, and there has been an estimated 18% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. However, it is a hardy and prolific species. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. Although there are overall range declines in many areas, they are not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is widespread and found in Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, China, Taiwan, India (including Nicobar and Andaman Islands), Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines (in Luzon it is absent in La Union province), Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, southern Viet Nam, and Cambodia. In Australasia it can be found in southwest Australia, northwest Australia, northeast Australia, Federated States of Micronesia, New Caledonia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. In East Africa and the Middle East the species is found in Tanzania, Mozambique, Somalia, Madagascar, Seychelles, Kenya, Maldives, South Africa.|
Native:Australia; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Comoros; India; Indonesia; Kenya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; New Caledonia; Pakistan; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Vanuatu; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is considered common throughout its range. In India, this species was found in 30% of 100 sampling sites (Kathiresan 2008). However, populations in Taiwan and throughout China (except for Hainan province) have been extirpated over at least the past 10 years.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found from downstream to intermediate estuarine zones in the mid to high intertidal regions. It is shade intolerant with a maximum porewater salinity of 45 ppt and a salinity of optimal growth of 0-15 ppt (Robertson and Alongi 1992). This species is slow-growing but is a hardy species and is very prolific.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is highly prized for fuelwood in many parts of its range (is considered second to Rhizophora spp.). In southern Viet Nam, many areas of mangroves have been destroyed during the Vietnam War due to the application of Agent Orange (herbicide). This species' bark is also harvested for tannins for dyes, and it is harvested for construction materials and fuelwood.|
Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 18% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas. It is grown in plantations in India, Viet Nam, and in the Philippines.|
Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Mathenge, C., Kairo, J.G., and Koedam, N. 2000. Utilization of mangrove wood products around Mida Creek (Kenya) amongst subsistence and commercial users. Economic Botany 54(4): 513-527.
Duke, N. 2006. Australia's Mangroves. The authoritative guide to Australia's mangrove plants. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Duke, N.C., Ball, M.C. and Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 27-47.
Ellison, J.C. 1995. Systematics and Distributions of Pacific Island Mangroves. In: J.E. Maragos, M.N.A. Peterson, L.G. Eldredge, J.E. Bardach and H.F. Takeuchi (eds), Marine and Coastal Biodiversity in the Tropical Island Pacific Region, pp. 59-74. East-West Center, Honolulu, USA.
Ellison, J.C. 2005. Holocene palynology and sea-level change in two estuaries in Southern Irian Jaya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220: 291-309.
FAO. 2007. The World's Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
Hughes, R.H. and Hughes, J.S. 1992. A Directory of African Wetlands. pp. 820. IUCN - World Conservation Union, United Nations Environment Programme and World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
Kathiresan, K. 2008. Biodiversity of Mangrove Ecosystems. Proceedings of Mangrove Workshop. GEER Foundation, Gujarat, India.
Khan, M.A. and Gul, B. 2002. Salt Tolerant Plants of Coastal Sabkhat of Pakistan. In: H.-J. Barth and B. Boer (eds), Sabkha Ecosystems. Vol 1: The Arabian Peninsula and Adjacent Countries, pp. 123-139. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netheralands.
Li, M.S. and Lee, S.Y. 1997. Mangroves of China: a brief review. Forest Ecology and Management 96: 241-259.
Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. 1992. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.
Wells, A.G. 1983. Distribution of mangroves species in Australia. In: H.J. Teas (ed.), Biology and Ecology of Mangroves, pp. 57-76. Dr W. Junk Publishers, Boston.
|Citation:||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T. 2010. Ceriops tagal. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 October 2014.|