|Scientific Name:||Camptostemon philippinense|
|Species Authority:||(S.Vidal) Becc.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species name has three different spellings (N. Duke pers. comm.).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered C1 ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is very rare and has a limited and patchy distribution in Indonesia and the Philippines. It is highly threatened by the removal of mangrove area for fish and shrimp aquaculture, and coastal development throughout its range. It is estimated that there are less than 2,500 mature individuals remaining and there has been a least 30% decline of mangrove area within this species range since 1980 (one generation length). It is listed as Endangered.
|Range Description:||This species is patchily distributed in Indonesia (Borneo and Sulawesi), and the Philippines, including Murcielagos Bay in Zamboanga.|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This is a rare species with very restricted distribution. There are very few individuals, even in areas where it is found. In the Philippines, it is estimated that there are less than 1,000 mature individuals. In the Indonesian part of the range it has been estimated that there are less than 200 mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in the low intertidal region along tidal inlet channels. It stands along tidal creeks in muddy and sandy subtrates. It is sympatric with Camptostemon schultzii on Halmahera, Indonesia.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is sometimes harvested for fuelwood, construction materials, and other household goods.|
This species is highly threatened by removal of mangrove areas to create fish and shrimp ponds in the Philippines, and thorughout its restricted range. It is also subject to localized cutting. It is estimated that at 30% of mangrove area has been lost in countries within this species range over a 25 year period (1980-2005) (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species. Protected areas that include this species should be established, and re-introduction programmes initiated.|
Duke, N. C., Ball, M.C. and Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 27-47.
Ellison, J.C. 2005. Holocene palynology and sea-level change in two estuaries in Southern Irian Jaya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220: 291-309.
FAO. 2007. The World's Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. 1992. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.
|Citation:||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Camptostemon philippinense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 August 2015.|
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