|Scientific Name:||Acanthurus grammoptilus|
|Species Authority:||Richardson, 1843|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Russell, B., Abesamis, R., Clements, K.D., Choat, J.H., McIlwain, J., Myers, R., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A. & Stockwell, B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Davidson, L., Edgar, G. & Kulbicki, M.|
Acanthurus grammoptilus is apparently confined to Northern Australia; it is common, and not heavily utilized. There are no major threats known and it is found in marine protected areas in parts of its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
Acanthurus grammoptilus occurs in Australia from Abrolhos, Western Australia to Queensland eastwards to Fiji. The record from Vanuatu is most likely A. blochii based on the absence of any yellow on the pectoral fin and the relatively small caudal knife (J.H. Choat and K.D. Clements pers. comm. 2010).
It was also recorded from Broome and the Dampier Archipelago. It has been recorded from Aceh, Indonesia (FMIPA 2007). This and other records from the Philippines and Indonesia are doubtful (Randall 2001a).
Native:Australia; Fiji; New Caledonia
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are no population data available for this species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Acanthurus grammoptilus inhabits silty inshore coastal reefs (Lieske and Myers 1994), but in western Australia it occurs in outer reefs in clear water environments. The sexes are separate among the acanthurids (Reeson 1983). Acanthurids do not display obvious sexual dimorphism, males assume courtship colours (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2010).|
|Use and Trade:||Acanthurus grammoptilus is harvested for food by the indigenous people in N Western Australia. It is also a minor component of the aquarium trade (Department of Primary Industry, Fisheries and Mines accessed 3 May 2010).|
There are no major threats known for this species.
Surgeonfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reef while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, and of these, approximately 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and degradation of coral reef habitat quality across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species' populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that recruit into areas with live coral cover, especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas in parts of its range.|
Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R., Craig, M.T., Lazuardi, M.E., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., et al.. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant components of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039825.
Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries and Mines. 2008. Northern Territory Aquarium Species- A guide to vertebrate species harvested by the Northern Territory Aquarium Fishery. Part I. Vertebrates. June 2008. Available at: http://www.nt.gov.au/d/Content/File/p/Broch_F/Aquarium_Fishery_ID_Guide_Fishes_Feb08.pdf. (Accessed: 3 May).
Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science (FMIPA) University of Syiah Kuala. 2007. Community-drive coral conservation in Aceh, Indonesia. A Report to Rufford Small Grant (for Nature Conservation). The Rufford Small Grants Foundation.
Green, A.L. and Bellwood, D.R. 2009. Monitoring functional groups of herbivorous reef fishes as indicators of coral reef resilience ? A practical guide for coral reef managers in the Asia Pacific region. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
Lieske, E. and Myers, R. 1994. Coral reef fishes: Indo-Pacific and Caribbean including the Red Sea. Harper Collins Publishers, London.
Randall, J.E. 2001a. Surgeonfishes of the world. Mutual Publishing and Bishop Museum Press, Hawai'i, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Reeson, P.H. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics of the surgeonfishes, Acanthuridae. In: J.L. Munro (ed.), Caribbean coral reef fishery resources, pp. 178-190.
|Citation:||Russell, B., Abesamis, R., Clements, K.D., Choat, J.H., McIlwain, J., Myers, R., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A. & Stockwell, B. 2012. Acanthurus grammoptilus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 September 2014.|
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