|Scientific Name:||Zebrasoma gemmatum|
|Species Authority:||(Valenciennes, 1835)|
Acanthurus gemmatus Valenciennes, 1835
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Myers, R., Choat, J.H., Abesamis, R., Clements, K.D., McIlwain, J., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B. & Stockwell, B.|
|Reviewer/s:||Edgar, G. & Kulbicki, M.|
Zebrasoma gemmatum is rare and inhabits deeper waters. It is harvested for the aquarium trade and due to its rarity fetches a very high price online. There is very little information available on its biology or the rates of harvest. It is therefore listed as Data Deficient.
|Range Description:||Zebrasoma gemmatum is found from Mauritius to Madagascar and Natal, South Africa. It has also been recorded from Mozambique (Fischer et al. 1990).|
Native:French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); Madagascar; Mauritius; Mozambique; Réunion; South Africa
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – western
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no population information available for this species. It is rare.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This is a rare species, usually encountered below 25 m and reported to 60 m. Juveniles have been reported to occur in shallower parts of its depth range and adults usually below 20 m (Lieske and Myers 1994). Jewelled Tang is seen on open reefs or over mixed sand and rubble adjacent to reefs. Territorial and nearly always solitary (Kuiter and Debelius 2001).
The sexes are separate among the acanthurids (Reeson 1983). There is a possibility of sexual dimorphism in Zebrasomas with cloacas bigger in females (Bushnell et al. 2010). This dimorphic character most probably applies to all Zebrasomas (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2010).
There are no major threats known for this species.
Surgeonfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reef while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, and of these, approximately 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and degradation of coral reef habitat quality across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species' populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that recruit into areas with live coral cover, especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.|
Bushnell, M.E., Claisse, J.T., and Laidley, C.W. 2010. Lunar and seasonal patterns in fecundity of an indeterminate, multiple-spawning surgeonfish, the yellow tang Zebrasoma flavescens. Journal of Fish Biology 76(6): 1343–1361.
Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R., Craig, M.T., Lazuardi, M.E., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., et al.. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant components of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039825.
Fischer, W., Sousa, I., Silva, C., de Freitas, A., Poutiers, J.M., Schneider, W., Borges, T.C., Feral, J.P. and Massinga, A. 1990. Fichas FAO de identificaçao de espécies para actividades de pesca. Guia de campo das espécies comerciais marinhas e de águas salobras de Moçambique. Publicaçao preparada em collaboraçao com o Instituto de Investigaçao Pesquiera de Moçambique, com financiamento do Projecto PNUD/FAO MOZ/86/030 e de NORAD. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
Randall, J.E. 2001a. Surgeonfishes of the world. Mutual Publishing and Bishop Museum Press, Hawai'i, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Reeson, P.H. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics of the surgeonfishes, Acanthuridae. In: J.L. Munro (ed.), Caribbean coral reef fishery resources, pp. 178-190.
The Marine Center. 2010. Gem Tang. Available at: http://www.themarinecenter.com/fish/tangs/gemtang/. (Accessed: 9 April).
|Citation:||Myers, R., Choat, J.H., Abesamis, R., Clements, K.D., McIlwain, J., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B. & Stockwell, B. 2012. Zebrasoma gemmatum. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 December 2013.|
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