|Scientific Name:||Acanthurus triostegus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
Acanthurus hirudo Bennett, 1829
Acanthurus pentazona Bleeker, 1850
Acanthurus subarmatus Bennett, 1840
Acanthurus triastegus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Acanthurus triostegus marquesensis Schultz & Woods, 1948
Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensis Streets, 1877
Acanthurus triostegust (Linnaeus, 1758)
Acanthurus triostegus triostegus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Acanthurus zebra Lacepède, 1802
Chaetodon couaga Lacepède, 1802
Chaetodon triostegus Linnaeus, 1758
Harpurus fasciatus Forster, 1801
Hepatus sandvicensis (Streets, 1877)
Hepatus triostegus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Rhombotides pentazona (Bleeker, 1850)
Rhombotides triostegus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Teuthis australis Gray, 1827
Teuthis elegans Garman, 1899
Teuthis sandvicensis (Streets, 1877)
Teuthis triostegus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Teuthis troughtoni Whitley, 1928
|Taxonomic Notes:||There is strong geographical pattern in the genetic structure of Acanthurus triostegus throughout the tropical Pacific but this does not warrant species recognition (Planes and Fauvelot 2002).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||McIlwain, J., Choat, J.H., Abesamis, R., Clements, K.D., Myers, R., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B. & Stockwell, B.|
|Reviewer(s):||McClenachan, L., Edgar, G. & Kulbicki, M.|
Acanthurus triostegus is widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific region. There is a strong geographical pattern in genetic structure throughout the Pacific, but this does not warrant species recognition. It is very abundant in some parts of its range. It is a targeted food and recreational species. There are no indications of global population declines through harvesting. It is found in a number marine protected areas in parts of its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern. We recommend monitoring of the harvest levels and population status of this species.
|Range Description:||Acanthurus triostegus is widely distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific, including Yemen, but it is not found elsewhere in the Arabian Peninsula. In the eastern Pacific it occurs from the lower Gulf of California, El Salvador to Ecuador and all the oceanic islands.|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Bangladesh; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Chile (Easter Is.); China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Disputed Territory (Paracel Is., Spratly Is.); Djibouti; Ecuador (Galápagos); El Salvador; Fiji; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); Guam; Honduras; Hong Kong; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati (Gilbert Is., Kiribati Line Is., Phoenix Is.); Macao; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Pitcairn; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is., Johnston I., Midway Is., US Line Is., Wake Is.); Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – western central; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – northwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Acanthurus triostegus was recorded as the most abundant species of surgeonfish in the Hawaiian Islands (Randall 1961b). It is an abundant inshore species (Randall 2001b). Marine recreational catch surveys administered by the Hawaii Marine Recreational Fishing Survey in 2006 recorded 432,182 individuals (Friedlander et al. 2006). It is the 3rd most commercially landed acanthurid in Hawaii, with an average of 5,800 kg from 1997-2005 (Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources unpub. data).|
It was recorded as occasional in Raja Ampat, Indonesia, where it is usually found in shallow, wave affected areas (Allen 2003b). It is locally abundant in the Philippines (B. Stockwell pers. comm. 2010). In Calamianes Islands, El Nido and San Vicente, Palawan, it is moderately common in shallow, wave affected areas near shore (Werner and Allen 2000, Palawan Council for Sustainable Development unpub. data). In Moorea, French Polynesia, the Acanthuridae family was dominant on the barrier reef (2.30 ind. m-2) and on the outer slope, (1.61 spec. m-2). On the barrier reef, this species accounted for 37% of the total density (Moussa 2009).
In Guam, A. triostegus accounts for 6% of acanthurid landings and less than 1% in Saipan (Guam Division of Aquatic and Wildlife Resources unpub. data). After a hurricane in Reunion Is. in January 1989, the density of Acunthurus triostegus, decreased six months after the hurricane, and later increased. Abundance estimates record 19 ind/200 m2 (LeTourner et al. 1993).
In Kenya, landings during 1978-2001 for families that are less important in commercial catches (e.g., scarinae and Acanthuridae) showed rising catches (1978-1984) followed by a general decline during the 1990s (Kaunda-Arara et al. 2003).
Visual census surveys in the Iboih coast, Weh Island, Indonesia recorded fish densities of 18 individuals/750 m2 at Pantai Sirkui, 11 individuals/750 m2 at Teupin Layeu and 12 individuals/750 m2 at Teluk Pelabuhan (Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science 2007). It was recorded as occasional in terms of relative abundance in Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, usually in shallow wave-affected areas (Allen 2003).
This species is very abundant on offshore islands other than the Galapagos (where it is uncommon), and common in clear water environments along the tropical eastern Pacific continental coast and Gorgona Island, Colombia. According to Robertson and Allen (1996), this fish was frequent enough to have a resident population in Clipperton Atoll. In Cabo Pulmo, Gulf of California, this species was considered scarce (Villarreal-Cavazos et al. 2000).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:|| This reef-associated species occurs in lagoons and seaward reefs with hard substrate. It is usually seen in reef crests in shallow exposed reef fronts (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2010). The young are abundant in tide pools (Randall 1986, Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001) In the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama, this species can be found over zones of madreporic branching corals, in sheltered areas (Dominici-Arosemena and Wolff 2006). In Hawaii, this species occurs in bays, harbours, and exposed reef areas. It abounds in tide pools and shallow water, yet is also known in depths of at least 100 ft (Randall 1961b). It is often observed feeding near freshwater run-offs where certain algae grow on rocks (Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001). Adults are often observed in large feeding aggregations, it may also be seen as solitary or in small groups. Large aggregations may be dense and cover areas more than 50 ft in diameter (Randall 1961b). It feeds on algal turfs (Choat et al. 2004). It is classified as a grazer (Green and Bellwood 2009). |
It rarely achieves sizes above 20 cm (TL).
The sexes are separate among the acanthurids (Reeson 1983). Acanthurids do not display obvious sexual dimorphism, males assume courtship colours (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2010). This species spawns year-round in equatorial waters, but seasonally in Hawaii, coinciding with the colder part of the year (February-March) (Randall 1961b). It recruits year-round in Guam (J. McIlwain unpub. data).
|Use and Trade:||Acanthurus triostegus is utilized as a food source (Titcomb 1972), and is important in commercial fisheries in some parts of its range. It is a popular recreational fish in Hawaii. It is also collected for the aquarium trade (Global Marine Aquarium Database accessed 19 March 2010). Online prices range from $22.95-$49.99 per individual (L. Rocha pers. comm. 2010).|
Localized fishing for artisanal and recreational fisheries is a threat in some areas.
Surgeonfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reef while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, and of these, approximately 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and degradation of coral reef habitat quality across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species' populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that recruit into areas with live coral cover, especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.|
Allen, G.R. 2003. Appendix 5. List of the reef fishes of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. In: G.R. Allen, J. P. Kinch, S.A. McKenna, and P. Seeto (eds), A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea–Survey II (2000), pp. 172. Conservation International, Washington, DC, USA.
Allen, G.R. 2003b. Appendix 1. List of the Reef Fishes of the Raja Ampat Islands. In: R. Donnelly, D. Neville and P.J. Mous (eds), Report on a rapid ecological assessment of the Raja Ampat Islands, Papua, Eastern Indonesia, held October 30 – November 22, 2002. The Nature Conservancy - Southeast Asia Center for Marine Protected Areas, Sanur, Bali.
Choat, J.H., Robbins, W.D. and Clements, K.D. 2004. The trophic status of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs. Marine Biology 145: 445-454.
Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B.A., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R., Craig, M.T., Lazuardi, M.E., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., Nañola Jr., C.L., Pardede, S., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Sanciangco, J.C., Stockwell, B., Harwell, H. and Carpenter, K.E. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant components of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039825.
Department of Primary Industries - Queensland Government. 2010. Surgeonfishes. Available at: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/28_8861.htm. (Accessed: 8 April).
Domeier, M.L. and Colin, P.L. 1997. Tropical reef fish spawning and aggregations: defined and reviewed. Bulletin of Marine Science 60(3): 698-726.
Dominici-Arosemena, A. and Wolff, M. 2006. Reef fish community structure in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Panamá): living on a relatively stable rocky reef environment. Helgoland Marine Research 60: 287-305.
Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science (FMIPA) University of Syiah Kuala. 2007. Community-drive coral conservation in Aceh, Indonesia. A Report to Rufford Small Grant (for Nature Conservation). The Rufford Small Grants Foundation.
Friedlander, A., Aeby, G., Brainard, R., Brown, E., Chaston, K., Clark, A., McGowan, P., Montgomery, T., Walsh, W., Williams, I. and Wiltse, W. 2006. The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Main Hawaiian Islands. Available at: http://www.nova.edu/ocean/cpce/hawaii.pdf. (Accessed: March 25).
Green, A.L. and Bellwood, D.R. 2009. Monitoring functional groups of herbivorous reef fishes as indicators of coral reef resilience – A practical guide for coral reef managers in the Asia Pacific region. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
Kaunda-Arara, B., Rose, G.A., Muchiri, M.S. and Kaka, R. 2003. Long-term Trends in Coral Reef Fish Yields and Exploitation Rates of Commercial Species from Coastal Kenya. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science 2(2): 105-116.
Krupp, F. 1995. Acanthuridae. Sangradores, cirujanos, navajones. In: W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds), Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental, pp. 839-844. FAO, Rome.
Kuiter, R.H. and Tonozuka, T. 2001. Pictorial guide to Indonesian reef fishes. Part 3. Jawfishes - Sunfishes, Opistognathidae - Molidae. Zoonetics, Australia.
Letourneur, Y., Harmelin-Vivien, M. and Galzin, R. 1993. Impact of hurricane Firinga on fish community strucrure on fringing reefs of Reunion Island, S. W. Indian Ocean. Environmental Biology of Fishes 37: 109-120.
Moussa, R.M. 2009. Comparative Study of the Structure of Commercial Fish Populations on Moorea, French Polynesia. SPC Fisheries Newsletter 130: 31-36.
Planes, S. and Fauvelot, C. 2002. Isolation by distance and vicariance drive genetic structure of a coral reef fish in the Pacific Ocean. Evolution 56(2): 378–399.
Ponwith, B.J. 1991. The Shoreline Fishery of American Samoa: A 12-year comparison. DMWR Biological Report series, No. 23. Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources, Pago Pago, American Samoa.
Randall, J.E. 1961a. Observations on the spawning of surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) in the Society Islands. Copeia 1961: 237-238.
Randall, J.E. 1961b. A contribution to the biology of the convict surgeonfish of the Hawaiian Islands: Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensis. Pacific Science 15(2): 215-272.
Randall, J.E. 1986. Family no. 243: Acanthuridae. In: M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds), Smiths Sea Fishes, pp. 811-823. Macmillan South Africa, Johannesburg.
Randall, J.E. 2001a. Surgeonfishes of the world. Mutual Publishing and Bishop Museum Press, Hawai'i, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Randall, J.E. 2001b. Acanthuridae. Surgeonfishes (tangs, unicornfishes). In: K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds), The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles, pp. 3653-3683. FAO, Rome.
Randall, J.E. 2002. Acanthuridae. Surgeonfishes. In: K.E. Carpenter (ed.), The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals, pp. 1801-1805.
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Reeson, P.H. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics of the surgeonfishes, Acanthuridae. In: J.L. Munro (ed.), Caribbean coral reef fishery resources, pp. 178-190.
Robertson, D.R. 1983. On the spawning behavior and spawning cycles of eight surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) from the Indo-Pacific. Environmental Biology of Fishes 9(3/4): 193-223.
Robertson, D.R. and Allen, G.R. 1996. Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll. Coral Reefs 15(2): 121-131.
Squire, L.S. and Samoilys, M.A. unpublished. Reports on observations of fish spawning aggregations on the Great Barrier Reef.
Titcomb, M. 1972. Native use of fish in Hawaii. The University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Villarreal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O. 2000. Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia e biogeografía. Revista de Biología Tropical 48(2-3): 413-424.
Werner, T.B. and Allen, G.R. 2000. A rapid marine biodiversity assessment of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan province, Philippines. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 17. Conservation International, Washington, USA.
|Citation:||McIlwain, J., Choat, J.H., Abesamis, R., Clements, K.D., Myers, R., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B. & Stockwell, B. 2012. Acanthurus triostegus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T177965A1504553.Downloaded on 26 June 2017.|