|Scientific Name:||Ctenochaetus cyanocheilus|
|Species Authority:||Randall & Clements, 2001|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Clements, K.D., Choat, J.H., Abesamis, R., McIlwain, J., Myers, R., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B. & Stockwell, B.|
|Reviewer(s):||McClenachan, L., Edgar, G. & Kulbicki, M.|
Ctenochaetus cyanocheilus is widely distributed and occasional to uncommon in most its range. It is caught incidentally in subsistence fisheries and for the aquarium trade but not at high levels. There are no major threats known. It is found in a number of marine reserves in parts of its distribution. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Ctenochaetus cyanocheilus is found from peninsular Malaysia, southern Sumatra and Vietnam to American Samoa and the Line Islands, north to Ogasawara Islands, Japan, south to the Great Barrier Reef, New Caledonia and Tonga (Randall and Clements 2001).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Brunei Darussalam; Disputed Territory (Paracel Is., Spratly Is.); Fiji; Guam; Indonesia; Japan; Kiribati (Gilbert Is., Phoenix Is.); Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Nauru; New Caledonia; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Samoa; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Timor-Leste; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is., US Line Is., Wake Is.); Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||At Tuvalu, this species was six times more common than Ctenochaetus striatus (Randall and Clements 2001). It was recorded as occasional in terms of relative abundance in the northern Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea (Allen 2009). It is abundant in the American Samoa National Park (National Park of Samoa Checklist of Fishes, accessed 21 April 2010). It is occasional in the Philippines (R. Abesamis pers. comm. 2010). It is uncommon in the Marianas (R.F. Myers pers. comm. 2010).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The genus Ctenochaetus feed on fine detrital material. They whisk the sand or rocky substratum with their teeth and utilize suction to draw in the detrital material that consists of diatoms, small fragments of algae, organic material and fine inorganic sediment (Randall and Clements 2001). Species of Ctenochaetus share the presence of a thick-walled stomach (Randall and Clements 2001); this character is significant with respect to the nutritional ecology of this genus (Choat et al. 2002b). On the Great Barrier Reef, it is found in outer reef fronts below C. striatus (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2010).
The sexes are separate among the acanthurids (Reeson 1983). Acanthurids do not display obvious sexual dimorphism, males assume courtship colours (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2010).
|Use and Trade:||Ctenochaetus cyanocheilus is a minor component of the marine aquarium trade, no price was listed online (L. Rocha pers. comm. 2010). It is caught incidentally in subsistence fisheries.|
There are no major threats known for this species.
Surgeonfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reef while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, and of these, approximately 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and degradation of coral reef habitat quality across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species' populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that recruit into areas with live coral cover, especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.|
Allen, G.R. 2009. Coral Reef Fish Diversity. In: R. Hamilton, A. Green and J. Almany (eds), Rapid Ecological Assessment: Northern Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea. Technical Report of survey conducted August 13 to September 7, 2006, The Nature Conservancy.
Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D. and Robbins, W.D. 2002b. The trophic status of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs. 1. Dietary analyses. Marine Biology 140: 613-623.
Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R., Craig, M.T., Lazuardi, M.E., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., et al.. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant components of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039825.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
National Park of American Samoa. 2008. Fishes of National Park of American Samoa Checklist of Fishes Family Name Listing. Available at: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/basch/uhnpscesu/htms/npsafish/family/acanthur.htm. (Accessed: 21 April).
Randall, J.E. 2001a. Surgeonfishes of the world. Mutual Publishing and Bishop Museum Press, Hawai'i, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Randall, J.E and Clements, K.D. 2001. Second revision of the surgeonfish genus Ctenochaetus (Perciformes: Acanthuridae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pacific Fishes 32: 33.
Reeson, P.H. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics of the surgeonfishes, Acanthuridae. In: J.L. Munro (ed.), Caribbean coral reef fishery resources, pp. 178-190.
|Citation:||Clements, K.D., Choat, J.H., Abesamis, R., McIlwain, J., Myers, R., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B. & Stockwell, B. 2012. Ctenochaetus cyanocheilus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 August 2015.|
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