|Scientific Name:||Acanthurus maculiceps|
|Species Authority:||(Ahl, 1923)|
Hepatus maculiceps Ahl, 1923
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Abesamis, R., Clements, K.D., McIlwain, J., Choat, J.H., Myers, R., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B. & Stockwell, B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Davidson, L., Edgar, G. & Kulbicki, M.|
Acanthurus maculiceps is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region. It is rare in most parts of its range but is reasonably common in some areas (i.e., Christmas Island). It is not specifically targeted in any fishery and is a minor component of the aquarium trade. It is found in a number of marine protected areas in parts of its distribution. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Acanthurus maculiceps is found from the Maldive Islands to the Line Islands and Samoa Islands, northwards to the Ryukyu Islands, Japan and southwards to the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia (Ashmore-Cartier Is.); Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Guam; Indonesia; Japan; Kiribati (Gilbert Is., Phoenix Is.); Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Nauru; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Samoa; Solomon Islands; Taiwan, Province of China; Timor-Leste; Tokelau; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is.); Wallis and Futuna
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Acanthurus maculiceps was recorded as occasional in terms of relative abundance in the northern Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea and in Raja Ampat Indonesia (Allen 2009, 2003b). It was recorded as rare in Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea (Allen 2003). It is reasonably common in Christmas Island, Indian Ocean (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2010). It is rare in the American Samoa National Park (National Park of Samoa Checklist of Fishes accessed 21 April 2010). It is also rare in Guam (J. McIlwain unpub. data) and in the Philippines (C. Nanola, B. Stockwell and R. Abesamis pers. comm. 2010).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Acanthurus maculiceps is found in outer reef areas from 1 to at least 30 m, either as a solitary individual or in a small group. It is classified as a grazer/detritivore (Choat and Bellwood pers obs. in Green and Bellwood 2009). The sexes are separate among the acanthurids (Reeson 1983). Acanthurids do not display obvious sexual dimorphism, males assume courtship colours (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2010).|
|Use and Trade:||Acanthurus maculiceps is part of the multi-species surgeonfish fisheries throughout its range. It is rarely collected for the aquarium trade. It is sold online for $69.99-$499.95 (L. Rocha pers. comm. 2010).|
There are no major threats known for this species.
Surgeonfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reef while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, and of these, approximately 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and degradation of coral reef habitat quality across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species' populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that recruit into areas with live coral cover, especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas in parts of its range.|
Allen, G.R. 2003. Appendix 5. List of the reef fishes of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. In: G.R. Allen, J. P. Kinch, S.A. McKenna, and P. Seeto (eds), A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea–Survey II (2000), pp. 172. Conservation International, Washington, DC, USA.
Allen, G.R. 2003b. Appendix 1. List of the Reef Fishes of the Raja Ampat Islands. In: R. Donnelly, D. Neville and P.J. Mous (eds), Report on a rapid ecological assessment of the Raja Ampat Islands, Papua, Eastern Indonesia, held October 30 – November 22, 2002. The Nature Conservancy - Southeast Asia Center for Marine Protected Areas, Sanur, Bali.
Allen, G.R. 2009. Coral Reef Fish Diversity. In: R. Hamilton, A. Green and J. Almany (eds), Rapid Ecological Assessment: Northern Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea. Technical Report of survey conducted August 13 to September 7, 2006, The Nature Conservancy.
Allen, M. 2005. A post-tsunami assessment of coral reef fin-fish resources on the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. In: Allen, G.R. and G.S. Stone (eds), Rapid Assessment Survey of Tsunami-affected Reefs of Thailand. Final Technical Report. November 15, 2005.
Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R., Craig, M.T., Lazuardi, M.E., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., et al.. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant components of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039825.
Green, A.L. and Bellwood, D.R. 2009. Monitoring functional groups of herbivorous reef fishes as indicators of coral reef resilience – A practical guide for coral reef managers in the Asia Pacific region. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Hamilton, R., Potoku, T. and Matawai, M. 2009. Fisheries Resources: Food Fish and Benthic Cover. In: R. Hamilton, A. Green and J. Almany (eds), Rapid Ecological Assessment: Northern Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea. Technical report of survey conducted August 13 to September 7, 2006, pp. 17-47. The Nature Conservancy.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
National Park of American Samoa. 2008. Fishes of National Park of American Samoa Checklist of Fishes Family Name Listing. Available at: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/basch/uhnpscesu/htms/npsafish/family/acanthur.htm. (Accessed: 21 April).
Reeson, P.H. 1983. The biology, ecology and bionomics of the surgeonfishes, Acanthuridae. In: J.L. Munro (ed.), Caribbean coral reef fishery resources, pp. 178-190.
|Citation:||Abesamis, R., Clements, K.D., McIlwain, J., Choat, J.H., Myers, R., Nanola, C., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B. & Stockwell, B. 2012. Acanthurus maculiceps. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 July 2015.|
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